SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Ackerley D, Beb BBM, Sylvia HEK, Elenor JH, David JF, Myles RA, David PR. 2011. Sensitivity of twentieth-century Sahel rainfall to sulfate aerosol and CO2 forcing. Journal of Climate 24: 49995014, DOI: 101175/JCLI-D-11-00019.1.
  • Ahmed AM. 2008. Post-Jonglei planning in southern Sudan: combing environment with development. Environment and urbanization 20(20): 575586, DOI: 10.1177/0956247808096129.
  • Ayoub TA. 1999. Land degradation, rainfall variability and food production in the Sahelian Zone of Sudan. Land degradation and development 10: 489500.
  • Boko M, Niang I, Nyong A, Vogel C, Githeko A, Medany M, Osman-Elasha M, Tabo R, Yanda P. 2007. Africa. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group 2 to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Parry ML, Canziani OF, Palutikof JP, van der Linden PJ, Hanson CE (eds). Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK, 433467.
  • Charney JG. 1975. Dynamics of desert and drought in the Sahel. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 101: 193202.
  • Cook KH. 1999. Generation of the African Easterly Jet and its role in determining west African precipitation. Journal of climate 12: 11651184.
  • Dee DP, Uppala SM, Simmons AJ, Berrisford P, Poli P, Kobayashi S, Andrae U, Balmaseda MA, Balsamo G, Bauer P, Bechtold P, Beljaars ACM, van de Berg L, Bidlot J, Bormann N, Delsol C, Dragani R, Fuentes M, Geer AJ, Haimberger L, Healy SB, Hersbach H, Ho ‘lm EV, Isaksen L, Kållberg P, Köhler M, Matricardi M, McNally AP, Monge-Sanz BM, Morcrette J-J, Park B-K, Peubey C, de Rosnay P, Tavolato C, The ‘paut J-N, Vitart F. 2011. The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 137: 553597, DOI: 10.1002/qj.828.
  • Dickinson RE, Henderson SA, Kennedy PJ. 1993. Biosphere–atmosphere transfer scheme (BATS) version 1E as coupled to the NCAR Community Climate Model. Technical Note NCRA/TN 387 + STR, p 72.
  • Druyan LM, Hall TM. 1996. The sensitivity of African wave disturbances to remote forcing. Journal of Applied Meteorology 35: 11001110.
  • Elagib NA, Elhag MM. 2011. Major climate indicators of ongoing drought in Sudan. Journal of hyrology 409: 612625.
  • Elagib NA, Mansell MG. 2000. Climate impacts of environmental degradation in Sudan. GeoJournal 50: 311327, DOI: 10.1023/A:1011071917001.
  • Elguindi N, Bi X, Giorgi F, Nagarajan B, Pal J, Solmon F, Rauscher S, Zakey A. 2007. RegCM3 user's guide, version 3.1 ICTP, Trieste, Italy.
  • Elsayem FE. 1986. The effect of deforestation in the Equatorial Africa on rainfall in central Sudan. In Proceedings of International Conference on Water Resources Needs and Planning in Drought Prone Areas. December, Khartoum, Volume 2, pp 155171.
  • Fritsch JM, Chappell CF, 1980. Numerical Prediction of Convectively Driven Mesoscale Pressure Systems. Part I: Convective Parameterization. Journal of Atmospheric Science 37: 17221733, DOI: 10.1175/1520-0469 (1980)037 < 1722:NPOCDM > 2.0.CO;2.
  • Giannini A, Saravanan R, Chang P. 2003. Oceanic forcing of Sahel rainfall on interannual to interdecadal time scales. Science 302: 10271030.
  • Giorgi F, Marinucci MR, Bates GT. 1993a. Development of a second-generation regional climate model (RegCM2). Part I: boundary-layer and radiative transfer processes. Monthly Weather Review 121(10): 27942813.
  • Giorgi F, Marinucci MR, Bates GT, Canio GD. 1993b. Development of a second-generation regional climate model (RegCM2). Part II: convective processes and assimilation of lateral boundary conditions. Monthly Weather Review 121: 28142832.
  • Grell GA, Dudhia J, Stauffer DR. 1994. Description of the generation Penn State/NCAR mesoscale model (MM5). Technical note no. TN-398 + STR, p 121. National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder.
  • Holtslag AAM, De Bruin EIF, Pan HL. 1990. A high resolution air mass transformation model for short-range weather forecasting. Monthly Weather Review 118: 15611575, DOI: 10.1175/1520-0493(1990)118 < 1561:AHRAMT > 2.0.CO;2.
  • Kawase H, Abe M, Yamada Y, Takemura T, Yokohata T, Nozawa T. 2010. Physical mechanism of long-term drying trend over tropical North Africa. Geophysical Research Letter 37: L09706, DOI: 10.1029/2010GL043038.
  • Kiehl JT, Hack JJ, Bonan GB, Boville BA, Briegleb BP, Williamson DL, Rasch PJ. 1996. Description of the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM3), Technical Report no. TN-420 + STR, p 152. National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder.
  • Loveland, T. R., B Reed, D. O Ohlen, J Zhu, L Yang, Merchant J. 2000. Development of a global land cover characteristics database and IGBP DISCover from 1-km AVHRR data. International Journal of Remote Sensing 21: 13031330.
  • Lu J, Delworth TL. 2005. Oceanic forcing of the late 20th century Sahel drought. Geophysical Research Letter 32: L22706, DOI: 10.1029/2005GL023316.
  • Mitchell TD, Carter TR, Jones PD, Hulme M, New M. 2004. A comprehensive set of high-resolution grids of monthly climate for Europe and the globe: the observed record (1901–2000) and 16 scenarios (2001–2100). Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, Norwich, Working Paper 55.
  • Mohamed YA, Savenije HHG, Bastiaanssen WGM, van den Hurk BJJM. 2006. New lesson on the Sudd hydrology learned from remote sensing and climate modeling. Hydrology Earth System Science 10: 507518.
  • New M, Hulme M, Jones P. 2000. Representing twentieth-century space-time climate variability. Part II: development of 190196 monthly grids of terrestrial surface climate. Journal of Climate 10: 22172238.
  • Pal JS, Giorgi F, Bi X, Elguindi N, Solomon F, Gao X, Francisco R, Zakey A, Winter J, Ashfaq M, Syed F, Bell JL, Di_anbaugh NS, Kamacharya J, Konare A, Martinez D, da Rocha RP, Sloan LC, Steiner A. 2007. The ICTP RegCM3 and RegCNET: regional climate modeling for the developing world. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 88: 13951409.
  • Sylla MB, Coppola E, Mariotti L, Giorgi F, Ruti PM, Dell'Aquila A, Bi X. 2009. Multiyear simulation of the African climate using regional climate model (RegCM3) with high resolution ERA-interim reanalysis. Climate Dynamic 35: 231247, DOI: 10.1007/s00382-009-0613-9.
  • Taylor CM, Eric FL, Nathalie S, Richard JH, Richard LHE. 2002. The influence of land use change on climate in the sahel. Journal of Climate 15: 36153629, DOI: 10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015 < 3615:TIOLUC > 2.0.CO;2.
  • UNEP. 2007. Sudan Post Conflict Environment Assessment, United Nations Environmental Programme, ISBN: 978-92-807-2702-9.
  • Wang G, Eltahir EAB. 2000. Role of vegetation dynamic in enhancing the low frequency variability of the Sahel rainfall. Water Resources Letter 36(4): 10131021, DOI:10.1029/1999WR900361.
  • Zeng X, Zhao M, Dickinson RE. 1998. Intercomparison of bulk aerodynamic algorithms for the computation of sea surface fluxes using TOGA COARE and TAO data. Journal of Climate 11: 26282644.
  • Zheng X, Eltahir EAB. 1998. The role of vegetation in the dynamics of West African monsoons. Journal of Climate 11: 20782096.