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Keywords:

  • Indian summer monsoon;
  • intraseasonal oscillation;
  • moisture budget;
  • moist static energy;
  • moisture advection

ABSTRACT

The vertically integrated moisture and moist static energy (MSE) budgets during the active and break phases of Indian summer monsoon are studied using National Centers for Environmental Prediction Reanalysis2 (NCEPR2) and Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data. The different parameterization procedures adopted by the reanalysis models will impose inevitable differences between the reanalysis products, which will make an impact on their intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) also. At the same time, the agreement of the moisture budget terms of the reanalysis products has enabled us to come up with a common moisture mechanism responsible for the ISO. Estimates of the moisture budget indicates that the rainfall anomalies over the Indian monsoon region in both active and break phases are mainly (70–80%) balanced by local moisture divergence. The remaining 20–25% is accounted by the horizontal moisture advection. The moisture advection is found to lead the rainfall by 8–9 d, while there is no lead-lag relationship is observed between the moisture divergence and rainfall. The anomalous moisture advection from the northwest pacific initiates the active phase of Indian monsoon and the dry air advection from the northwest of India after the onset of active convection sets off the break conditions. MSE budget over India is balanced by MSE divergence and moisture advection, indicating that the variation in MSE is mainly governed by moisture in the intraseasonal timescales. A positive covariance between radiative and surface fluxes and precipitation anomalies indicates that these flux terms slowdown the variation of MSE during active/break phase and may help to extend the ISO. The anomalous moisture advection has a major role in northward propagation of ISO also. A large residual of MSE budget during onset of ISO is the main caveat of the reanalysis products and it is the major constrain in the present analysis also.