Observation of spatial patterns on the rainfall response to ENSO and IOD over Indonesia using TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA)



Remote sensing data of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis for 13 years have been used to observe the spatial patterns relationship of rainfall with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) over Indonesia. Linear correlation was measured to determine the relationship level by the restriction analysis of seasonal and monthly relationship, while the partial correlation technique was utilized to distinguish the impact of one phenomenon from that of the other. Application of remote sensing data can reveal an interaction of spatial-temporal relationship of rainfall with ENSO and IOD between land and sea. In general, the temporal patterns relationship of rainfall with ENSO confirmed fairly similar temporal patterns between rainfall with IOD, which is high response during JJA (June–July–August) and SON (September–October–November) and unclear response during DJF (December–January–February) and MAM (March–April–May). Spatial patterns relationship of both phenomena with rainfall is high in the southeastern part of Sumatra Island and Java Island during JJA and SON. During the SON season, IOD has a higher relationship level than ENSO in this part. In the spatial-temporal pattern seen, a dynamic movement of the relationship between IOD and ENSO with rainfall in Indonesia is indicated, where the influence of ENSO and IOD started during JJA especially in July in the southwest of Indonesia and ended in the DJF period especially in January in the northeast of Indonesia.