SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Allan RJ, Lindsay JA, Reason CJC. 1995. Multidecadal variability in the climate system over the Indian Ocean region during the Austral Summer. Journal of Climate 5: 18531873.
  • Bigot S, Roucou P, Moron V. 1994. Amélioration des données de précipitation en zone tropicale en vue de la validation des modèles atmosphériques de circulation générale: exemple de l'Amérique du sud et de l'Afrique. Publications de l'Association Internationale de Climatologie 7: 421431.
  • Bigot S, Camberlin P, Moron V, Richard Y, Roucou P. 1995. Modes of rainfall variability in tropical Africa and their stability trough times. In 21st Conference of the American Meteorological Society ‘Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology’, Boston, MA; 448449.
  • Bottomley M, Folland CK, Hsiung J, Nevell RE, Parkers DE. 1990. Global Ocean Surface Temperature: Atlas GOSTA. Meteorological Office: Bracknell, UK.
  • D'abreton PC, Lindesay JA. 1993. Water vapour transport over Southern Africa during wet and dry early and late summer months. International Journal of Climatology 13: 151170.
  • Fontaine B, Janicot S, Moron V, Roucou P, Trzsaka S. 1998. Anomalies de température de surface de la mer et précipitations tropicales: synthèse de quelques travaux récents portant sur les précipitations au Sahel et dans le Nordeste. La Météorologie 23: 1435.
  • Flohn H, Kapala A. 1989. Changes of tropical sea-air interaction processes over a 30-year period. Nature 338: 244246.
  • Harsch E. 1992. Drought devastates Southern Africa. Drought Network News 2: 1719.
  • Hulme M. 1992. Rainfall changes in Africa: 1931–1960 to 1961–1990. International Journal of Climatology 12: 685699.
  • Hulme M. 1996. Recent climatic changes in the World's drylands. Geophysical Research Letters 23: 6164.
  • Jury MR. 1992. A climatic dipole governing the interannual variability of convection over the SW Indian Ocean and the SE Africa region. Trends in Geophysical Research 1: 165172.
  • Jury MR. 1996. Regional teleconnection patterns associated with summer rainfall over South Africa, Namibia and Zimbabwe. International Journal of Climatology 16: 135153.
  • Jury MR, Mac Queen C, Levey K. 1994. SOI and QBO signals in the African Region. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 50: 103115.
  • Jury MR, Pathack B. 1993. Composite climatic patterns associated with extreme modes of summer rainfall over southern Africa: 1975–1984. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 47: 137145.
  • Jury MR, Pathack B, Sohn BJ. 1992. Spatial structure and interannual variability of summer convection over southern Africa and the SW Indian Ocean. South African Journal of Science 88: 275280.
  • Kruger AC. 1999. The influence of the decadal-scale variability of summer rainfall on the impact of El Niño and La Niña events in South Africa. International Journal of Climatology 19: 5968.
  • Kalnay E, Kanamitsu M, Kistler R, Collins W, Deaven D, Gandin L, Iredell M, Saha S, White G, Woollen J, Zhu Y, Chelliah M, Ebisuzaki W, Higgins W, Janowiak J, Mo KC, Ropelewski C, Wang J, Leetmaa A, Reynolds R, Jenne R, Joseph D. 1996. The NCEP/NCAR 40-year Reanalysis Project. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 77: 437471.
  • Lanzante JR. 1996. Lag relationships involving tropical sea surface temperatures. Journal of Climate 9: 25682578.
  • Lindesay JA. 1988. South African rainfall, the Southern Oscillation and a Southern Hemisphere semi-annual cycle. Journal of Climatology 8: 1730.
  • Lindesay JA, Vogel CH. 1990. Historical evidence for Southern Oscillation–Southern African rainfall relationships. International Journal of Climatology 10: 679689.
  • Mason SJ. 1996. Climatic change over the Lowveld of south Africa. Climate change 32: 3554.
  • Mason SJ, Lindesay JA. 1993. A note of the modulation of Southern Oscillation–Southern African rainfall oscillations and the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation. Journal of Geophysical Research 98: 88478850.
  • Mason SJ, Mimmack GM. 1992. The use of bootstrap correlation coefficients for the correlation coefficient in climatology. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 45: 229233.
  • Mason SJ, Tyson PD. 1992. The modulation of sea-surface temperature and rainfall associations over Southern Africa with solar activity and the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation. Journal of Geophysical Research 97: 54875856.
  • Matarira CH. 1990. Drought over Zimbabwe in a regional and global context. International Journal of Climatology 10: 609625.
  • Matarira CH, Jury M. 1992. Contrasting meteorological structures of intra-seasonal wet and dry spells in Zimbabwe. International Journal of Climatology 12: 165176.
  • Mo KC, White GH. 1985. Teleconnections in the Southern Hemisphere. Monthly Weather Review 113: 2237.
  • Moron V, Ward MN. 1998. ENSO teleconnections with climate variability in the European and African sectors. Weather 9: 287295.
  • Nicholson SE. 1997. An analysis of the ENSO signal in the tropical Atlantic and western Indian oceans. International Journal of Climatology 17: 345375.
  • Poccard I. 2000. Djon,Universitė de Bourrgogne Etude diagnostique de nouvelles données climatiques: les réanalyses. Exemples d'application aux précipitations. PhD thesis. Dijon, Université de Bourgogne.
  • Poccard I, Janicot S, Camberlin P. 2000. Comparison of Rainfall Structures between NCEP/NCAR Reanalyses and observed data over tropical Africa. Climate Dynamics 16: 897915.
  • Reason C. 1998. Warm and cold events in the Southeast Atlantic/Southwest Indian Ocean region potential impacts on circulation and rainfall over southern Africa. Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics. 69: 4965.
  • Reason C. 1999. Interannual warm and cool events in the subtropical/mid-latitude South Indian region. Geophysical Research Letters 26: 215218.
  • Reason C, Lutjeharms J. 1998. Variability of the South Indian Ocean and implications for southern African rainfall. South African Journal of Science 94: 115123.
  • Reason CJC, Mulenga H. 1999. Relationships between South African rainfall and SST anomalies in the South West Indian Ocean. International Journal of Climatology 19: 16511673.
  • Richard Y. 1993. Relations entre la variabilité pluviométrique en Afrique australe tropicale et la circulation océano-atmosphérique. PhD thesis, Aix-en-Provence.
  • Richard Y. 1996. La question de la linéarité des relations en climatologie diagnostique: l'exemple de la sensibilité des pluies stationnelles d'Afrique australe à l'oscillation australe. Méditerranée 4: 8790.
  • Richard Y, Camberlin P, Beltrando G. 1998. Recherche de structures spatio-temporelles en climatologie: l'exemple de la variabilité pluviométrique en Afrique orientale. L'Espace Géographique 1: 3140.
  • Richard Y, Trzaska S, Roucou P, Rouault M. 2000. Modification of the southern African rainfall variability/ENSO relationship since the late 1960's. Climate Dynamics 16: 883895.
  • Rocha A, Simmonds I. 1997. Interannual variability of south-eastern African summer rainfall. Part 1: Relationships with air-sea interaction processes. International Journal of Climatology 17: 235265.
  • Ropelewski CF, Halpert MS. 1987. Global and regional scale precipitation and temperature patterns associated with El Niño/Southern Oscillation. Monthly Weather Review 115: 16061626.
  • Ropelewski CF, Halpert MS. 1989. Precipitation patterns associated with the high index phase of the Southern Oscillation. Journal of Climate 2: 268284.
  • Ropelewski CF, Halpert MS. 1996. Quantifying Southern Oscillation–Precipitation relationships. Journal of Climate 9: 10431059.
  • Ropelewski CF, Jones PD. 1987. An extension of the Tahiti–Darwin Southern Oscillation Index. Monthly Weather Review 115: 16061626.
  • Shinoda M, Kawamura R. 1996. Relationships between rainfall over semi-arid Southern Africa, geopotential heights and sea-surface temperatures. Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan 74: 2136.
  • Todd M, Washington R. 1999. Circulation anomalies associated with tropical-temperate troughs in southern Africa and the south west Indian Ocean. Climate Dynamics 15: 937951.
  • Trzaska S, Moron V, Fontaine B. 1996. Global atmospheric response to specific linear combinations of the main SST modes. Part I: Numerical experiments and preliminary results. Annales Geophysicaes 14: 10661077.
  • Tyson PD. 1984. The atmospheric modulation of extended wet and dry spells over South Africa, 1958–1978. International Journal of Climatology 4: 621635.
  • Tyson PD. 1986. Climatic Change and Variability in Southern Africa, Cape Town. Oxford University Press: Oxford.
  • Tyson PD, Dyer TGJ, Mametse MN. 1975. Secular changes in South African rainfall: 1880 to 1972. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 76: 340341.
  • Vogel CH. 1994. (Mis)management of droughts in South Africa: Past, present, future. South African Journal of Science 90: 45.
  • Walker ND. 1989. Sea-surface temperature–rainfall relationships and associated ocean-atmosphere coupling mechanisms in the Southern Africa region. C.S.I.R. Research Report 683, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
  • Walker ND. 1990. Links between South African summer rainfall and temperature variability of the Agulhas and Benguela system. Journal of Geophysical Research 95: 32973319.
  • Wang XL, Ropelewski CF. 1995. An assessment of ENSO-scale secular variability. Journal of Climate 8: 15941599.
  • Webster PJ, Moore AM, Loschnigg JP, Leben RR. 1999. Coupled ocean-atmosphere dynamics in the Indian Ocean during 1997–98. Nature 401: 356360.
  • WMO. 1999. WMO statement on the status of the global climate in 1998. WMO 596: 12.