SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • Adjez A. 2000. Changes in the rainfall regime in the North-African region: links with large-scale oscillation phenomena. In Conference Abstracts ‘Detection and modelling of recent climate change and its effects on a regional scale’, Tarragona; 24.
  • Alpert P, Neeman BU, Shay-El Y. 1990. Intermonthly variability of cyclone tracks in the Mediterranean. Journal of Climate 3: 14741487.
  • Amanatidis GT, Paliatsos AG, Repapis CC, Barttzis JG. 1993. Decreasing precipitation trend in the Marathon area, Greece. International Journal of Climatology 13: 191201.
  • Barnett T, Preisendorfer R. 1987. Origins and levels of monthly and seasonal forecasts skill for the United States surface air temperatures determined by canonical correlation analysis. Monthly Weather Review 115: 18251850.
  • Barnston AG, Livezey RE. 1987. Classification, seasonality and persistence of low-frequency atmospheric circulation patterns. Monthly Weather Review 115: 10831126.
  • Ben-Gai T, Bitan A, Manes A, Alpert P. 1994. Long-term changes in annual rainfall patterns in southern Israel. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 49: 5967.
  • Ben-Gai T, Bitan A, Manes A, Alpert P, Rubin S. 1998. Spatial and temporal changes in rainfall frequency distribution patterns in Israel. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 61: 177190.
  • Brunetti M, Maugeri M, Nanni T. 2000. Variations of temperature and precipitation in Italy from 1866 to 1995. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 65: 165174.
  • Brunetti M, Maugeri M, Nanni T. 2002. Atmospheric circulation and precipitation in Italy for the last 50 years. International Journal of Climatology 22: 14551471.
  • Buffoni L, Maugeri M, Nanni T. 1999. Precipitation in Italy from 1833 to 1996. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 63: 3340.
  • Chbouki N, Stockton CW, Myers DE. 1995. Spatio-temporal patterns of drought in Morocco. International Journal of Climatology 15: 187205.
  • Conte M, Giuffrida S, Tedesco S. 1989. The Mediterranean oscillation: impact on precipitation and hydrology in Italy. In Proceedings of the Conference on Climate and Water, vol. 1. Publications of Academy of Finland: Helsinki; 121137.
  • Corte-Real J, Zhang X, Wang X. 1995. Large-scale circulation regimes and surface climatic anomalies over the Mediterranean. International Journal of Climatology 15: 11351150.
  • Corte-Real J, Qian B, Xu H. 1998. Regional climate change in Portugal: precipitation variability associated with large-scale atmospheric circulation. International Journal of Climatology 18: 619635.
  • Douguedroit A. 1998. Que peut-on dire d'une oscillation Méditerraneénne? In Climate and Environmental Change, AlcoforadoMJ (ed.). Evora: 135136.
  • Dünkeloh A, Jacobeit J. 2001. Zirkulationsdynamische Analyse mediterraner Niederschlagsanomalien und deren Entwicklungen in den letzten 50 Jahren. In Proceedings of the Conference ‘20. Jahrestagung des AK Klima der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geographie (DGfG)’, Delemont; 51.
  • Esteban-Parra MJ, Rodrigo FS, Castro-Diez Y. 1998. Spatial and temporal patterns of precipitation in Spain for the period 1880–1992. International Journal of Climatology 18: 15571574.
  • Flocas AA, Giles BD. 1991. Distribution and intensity of frontal rainfall over Greece. International Journal of Climatology 11: 429442.
  • González-Hidalgo JC, De Luis M, Raventós J, Sánchez JR. 2001. Spatial distribution of seasonal rainfall trends in a western Mediterranean area. International Journal of Climatology 21: 843860.
  • Goodess CM, Jones PD. 2002. Links between circulation and changes in the characteristics of Iberian rainfall. International Journal of Climatology 22: 15931615.
  • Hotelling H. 1936. Relations between two sets of variates. Biometrika 28: 321377.
  • Hurrell JW. 1995. Decadal trends in the North Atlantic oscillation: regional temperature and precipitation. Science 269: 676679.
  • Hurrell JW. 2003. NAO index data (based on station data of Ponta Delgada, Azores, and Stykklsholmur/Reykjavik, Iceland; 1865–2003; monthly) provided by the Climate Analysis Section, NCAR, Boulder, USA. http://www.cgd.ucar.edu/∼jhurrell/nao.stat.html [15 August 2003].
  • Hurrell JW, van Loon H. 1997. Decadal variations in climate associated with the North Atlantic oscillation. Climatic Change 36: 301326.
  • Jacobeit J. 1985. Die Analyse großräumiger Strömungsverhältnisse als Grundlage von Niederschlagsdifferenzierungen im Mittelmeerraum. Würzburger Geographische Arbeiten 63.
  • Jacobeit J. 1987. Variations of trough positions and precipitation patterns in the Mediterranean area. Journal of Climatology 7: 453476.
  • Jacobeit J. 2000. Rezente Klimaentwicklung im Mittelmeerraum. Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen 144(6): 2233.
  • Jacobeit J, Dünkeloh A. 2003. Zirkulationsdynamik mediterraner Niederschlagsschwankungen—kanonische Korrelationsanalyse für das Winterhalbjahr seit Mitte des 20. Jahrhunderts. In Beiträge zur Klima- und Meeresforschung, ChmielewskiFM, FokenTh (eds). Berlin and Bayreuth; 3949.
  • Jacobeit J, Jonsson P, Bärring L, Beck C, Ekström M. 2001. Zonal indices for Europe 1780–1995 and running correlations with temperature. Climatic Change 48: 219241.
  • Jones PD. 2003. NAO Index Data (based on station data of Gibraltar and SW Iceland; 1821–2000; monthly) provided by Climatic Research Unit (CRU), Norwich, GB. http://www.cru.uea.ac.uk/cru/data/nao.htm [15 August 2003].
  • Jones PD, Jónsson T, Wheeler D. 1997. Extension to the North Atlantic oscillation using early instrumental pressure observations from Gibraltar and south-west Iceland. International Journal of Climatology 17: 14331450.
  • Kalnay E, Kanamitsu M, Kistler R, Collins W, Deaven D, Gandin L, Iredell M, Saha S, White G, Woollen J, Zhu Y, Chelliah M, Ebisuzaki W, Higgins W, Janowiak J, Mo KC, Ropelewski C, Wang J, Leetmaa A, Reynolds R, Jenne R, Joseph D. 1996. The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 77: 437472.
  • Kistler R, Kalnay E, Collins W, Saha S, White G, Woollen J, Chelliah M, Ebisuzaki W, Kanamitsu M, Kousky V, van den Dool H, Jenne R, Fiorino M. 2001. The NCEP–NCAR 50-year reanalysis: monthly means CD-ROM and documentation. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 82: 247268.
  • Krichak SO, Tsidulko M, Alpert P. 2000. Monthly synoptic patterns associated with wet/dry conditions in the eastern Mediterranean. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 65: 215229.
  • Kutiel H, Kay PA. 1992. Recent variations in 700 hPa geopotential heights in summer over Europe and the Middle East, and their influence on meteorological factors. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 46: 99108.
  • Kutiel H, Paz S. 1998. Sea level pressure departures in the Mediterranean and the relationship with monthly rainfall conditions in Israel. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 60: 93109.
  • Kutiel H, Maheras P, Guika S. 1996a. Circulation and extreme rainfall conditions in the eastern Mediterranean during the last century. International Journal of Climatology 16: 7392.
  • Kutiel H, Maheras P, Guika S. 1996b. Circulation indices over the Mediterranean and Europe and their relationship with rainfall conditions across the Mediterranean. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 54: 125138.
  • Lamb PJ, Peppler RA. 1987. North Atlantic oscillation: concept and an application. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 68: 12181225.
  • Littmann T. 2000. An empirical classification of weather types in the Mediterranean basin and their interrelation with rainfall. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 66: 161171.
  • Maheras P, Xoplaki E, Kutiel H. 1999. Wet and dry monthly anomalies across the Mediterranean basin and their relationship with correlation, 1860–1990. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 64: 189199.
  • Maheras P, Patrikas I, Karacostas Th, Anagnostopoulou Chr. 2000. Automatic classification of circulation types in Greece: methodology, description, frequency, variability and trend analysis. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 67: 205223.
  • Maheras P, Flocas HA, Patrikas I, Anagnostopoulou Chr. 2001. A 40 year objective climatology of surface cyclones in the Mediterranean region: spatial and temporal distribution. International Journal of Climatology 21: 109130.
  • Makrogiannis TJ, Sahsamanoglou CS. 1990. Time variation of the mean sea level pressure over the major Mediterranean area. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 41: 149156.
  • Meteorological Office. 1962. Weather in the Mediterranean, General Meteorology, vol. 1. Publication 391. HMSO: London.
  • Meyrhöfer S, Rapp J, Schönwiese CD. 1996. Observed three-dimensional climate trends in Europe 1961–1990. Meteorologische Zeitschrift 5: 9094.
  • New MG, Hulme M, Jones PD. 1999. Representing twentieth century space–time climate variability. Part I: development of a 1961–1990 mean monthly terrestrial climatology. Journal of Climate 12: 829856.
  • New MG, Hulme M, Jones PD. 2000. Representing twentieth century space–time climate variability. Part II: development of a 1901–1996 monthly terrestrial climate fields. Journal of Climate 13: 22172238.
  • Nicholls N. 1987. The use of canonical correlation to study teleconnections. Monthly Weather Review 115: 393399.
  • NOAA–CPC. 2003. Northern Hemisphere teleconnection indices (1950–2003; monthly). http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/data/teledoc/telecontents.html [15 August 2003].
  • Palutikof J. 2003. Analysis of Mediterranean climate data: measured and modelled. In Mediterranean Climate—Variability and Trends, BolleHJ (ed.). Springer Verlag: Berlin; 133153.
  • Palutikof J, Conte M, Mendes JC, Goodess CM, Esprito Santo F. 1996. Climate and climatic change. In Mediterranean Desertification and Land Use, BrandtCJ, ThornesJB (eds). Wiley: Chichester; 4386.
  • Piervitali E, Colacino M, Conte M. 1997. Signals of climatic change in the central–western mediterranean basin. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 58: 211219.
  • Qian B, Corte-Real J, Xu H. 2000. Is the North Atlantic oscillation the most important atmospheric pattern for precipitation in Europe? Journal of Geophysical Research 105: 11 90111 910.
  • Quadrelli R, Pavan V, Molteni F. 2001. Wintertime variability of the Mediterranean precipitation and its links with large-scale circulation anomalies. Climate Dynamics 17: 457466.
  • Reddaway JM, Bigg GR. 1996. Climatic change over the Mediterranean and links to the more general atmospheric circulation. International Journal of Climatology 16: 651661.
  • Reiter ER. 1975. Handbook for Forecasters in the Mediterranean. Part I: General Description of the Meteorological Processes. Naval Environmental Research Facility: Monterey, CA.
  • Rodó X, Baert E, Comin FA. 1997. Variations in seasonal rainfall in southern Europe during the present century: relationships with the North Atlantic oscillation and the El Nino–southern oscillation. Climate Dynamics 13: 275284.
  • Sahsamanoglou H, Makrogiannis T, Kallimopoulos P. 1991. Some aspects of the basic characteristics of the Siberian anticyclone. International Journal of Climatology 11: 827839.
  • Schönwiese CD, Rapp J. 1997. Climate Trend Atlas of Europe—Based on Observations 1891–1990. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.
  • Schönwiese CD, Rapp J, Fuchs T, Denhard M. 1994. Observed climate trends in Europe 1891–1990. Meteorologische Zeitschrift 3: 2228.
  • Steinberger EH, Gazit-Yaari N. 1996. Recent changes in spatial distribution of annual precipitation in Israel. Journal of Climate 9: 33283336.
  • Thompson DWJ, Wallace JM. 2000. Annular modes in the extratropical circulation. Part I: month-to-month variability. Journal of Climate 13: 10001016.
  • Thompson DWJ, Wallace JM, Hegerl GC. 2000. Annular modes in the extratropical circulation. Part II: trends. Journal of Climate 13: 10181036.
  • Thompson DWJ, Wallace JM. 2003. AO index data (based on the leading empirical orthogonal function (EOF); 1899–2002, monthly). http://www.atmos.colostate.edu/ao/Data/ao_index.html [15 August 2003].
  • Trigo RM, DaCamara CC. 2000. Circulation weather types and their influence on the precipitation regime in Portugal. International Journal of Climatology 20: 15591581.
  • Trigo IF, Davies TD, Bigg GR. 1999. Objective climatology of cyclones in the Mediterranean region. Journal of Climate 12: 16851696.
  • Trigo IF, Davies TD, Bigg GR. 2000. Decline in Mediterranean rainfall caused by weakening of Mediterranean cyclones. Geophysical Research Letters 27: 29132916.
  • Türkes M. 1996. Spatial and temporal analysis of annual rainfall variations in Turkey. International Journal of Climatology 16: 10571076.
  • Von Storch H, Zwiers FW. 1999. Statistical Analysis in Climate Research. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
  • Von Storch H, Zorita E, Cubasch U. 1993. Downscaling of global climate change estimates to regional scales: an application to Iberian rainfall in wintertime. Journal of Climate 6: 11611171.
  • Wallace JM, Gutzler DS. 1981. Teleconnections in the geopotential height field during the Northern Hemisphere winter. Monthly Weather Review 109: 784812.
  • Xoplaki E, Luterbacher J, Burkard R, Patrikas I, Maheras P. 2000. Connection between the large-scale 500 hPa geopotential height fields and precipitation over Greece during wintertime. Climate Research 14: 129146.
  • Xoplaki E, González-Rouco JF, Luterbacher J, Wanner H. 2003. Mediterranean summer air temperature variability and its connection to the large-scale atmospheric circulation and SSTs. Climate Dynamics 20: 723739.
  • Zorita E, Kharin V, von Storch H. 1992. The atmospheric circulation and sea surface temperature in the North Atlantic area in winter: their interaction and relevance for Iberian precipitation. Journal of Climate 5: 10971108.