Damage and degenerative changes in menisci-covered and exposed tibial osteochondral regions after simulated landing impact compression—a porcine study

Authors

  • Chen Hua Yeow,

    1. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, NUS Tissue Engineering Programme, Office of Life Sciences, National University of Singapore, 27 Medical Drive, Singapore 117510, Singapore
    2. Division of Bioengineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore
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  • Swee Ting Lau,

    1. Division of Bioengineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore
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  • Peter Vee Sin Lee,

    1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
    2. Biomechanics Lab, Defence Medical and Environmental Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore
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  • James Cho Hong Goh

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, NUS Tissue Engineering Programme, Office of Life Sciences, National University of Singapore, 27 Medical Drive, Singapore 117510, Singapore
    2. Division of Bioengineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore
    • Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, NUS Tissue Engineering Programme, Office of Life Sciences, National University of Singapore, 27 Medical Drive, Singapore 117510, Singapore. T: 065-6516-5259, F: 065-6776-5322.
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Abstract

The capacity of menisci-covered and exposed tibial osteochondral regions in resisting impact-induced damage and degeneration is not fully understood. This study sought to evaluate damage and degenerative changes in these regions upon a single simulated landing impact. We hypothesized that the menisci-covered regions are more susceptible to damage and degeneration than their exposed counterparts. Menisci-covered and exposed tibial osteochondral explants were extracted from fresh porcine hind legs and placed in culture up to 14 days. Impact compression, based on a single 10-Hz haversine, was performed at Day 1. Control (non-impact) and impacted explants were randomly selected for cell viability assessment, glycoaminoglycan and collagen content assays, histology, immunohistochemistry, and micro-computed tomography. When subjected to 2-mm displacement compression, exposed explants achieved a significantly higher peak impact stress (p < 0.05) than menisci-covered explants. No significant difference in cell viability, glycoaminoglycan and collagen content, and Mankin scores (p > 0.05) was observed between both explant groups. Both groups were observed with reduced proteoglycan and type II collagen staining at Day 14; the exposed group was noted with increased cartilage volume at Days 7–14. The inferior resistance of menisci-covered regions, against impact-induced damage and degeneration, is a potential factor that may contribute to the meniscectomy model of osteoarthritis. © 2009 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 27: 1100–1108, 2009

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