• 1
    Hildebrand F, Giannoudis P, Kretteck C, et al. 2004. Damage control: extremities. Injury 35: 678689.
  • 2
    Pape HC, Grimme K, van GM, et al. 2003. Impact of intramedullary instrumentation versus damage control for femoral fractures on immunoinflammatory parameters: prospective randomized analysis by the EPOFF Study Group. J Trauma 55: 713.
  • 3
    Pape HC. 2008. Effects of changing strategies of fracture fixation on immunologic changes and systemic complications after multiple trauma: damage control orthopedic surgery. J Orthop Res 26(11): 14781484.
  • 4
    Watson T. 2006. External fixation. In: BucholzRW, HechmanJD, Court-BrownC, Rockwood and Green's fractures in adults, 6th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  • 5
    Zelle BA, Bhandari M, Espiritu M, et al. 2006. Treatment of distal tibia fractures without articular involvement: a systematic review of 1125 fractures. J Orthop Trauma 20: 7679.
  • 6
    Tornetta P III, Bergman M, Watnik N, et al. 1994. Treatment of grade-IIIb open tibial fractures. A prospective randomised comparison of external fixation and non-reamed locked nailing. J Bone Joint Surg Br 76: 1319.
  • 7
    Bhandari M, Zlowodzki M, Tornetta P III, et al. 2005. Intramedullary nailing following external fixation in femoral and tibial shaft fractures. J Orthop Trauma 19: 140144.
  • 8
    Hochstein P, Aymar M, Winkler H, et al. 1994. Surgical treatment of diaphyseal tibial fractures. Choice of procedure and results of treatment of 187 fractures. Unfallchirurgie 20: 259275.
  • 9
    Coles CP, Gross M. 2000. Closed tibial shaft fractures: management and treatment complications. A review of the prospective literature. Can J Surg 43: 256262.
  • 10
    Malik ZU, Hanif MS, Safdar A, et al. 2005. Planned external fixation to locked intramedullary nailing conversion for open fractures of shaft of femur and tibia. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 15: 133136.
  • 11
    Ueno M, Yokoyama K, Nakamura K, et al. 2006. Early unreamed intramedullary nailing without a safety interval and simultaneous flap coverage following external fixation in type IIIB open tibial fractures: a report of four successful cases. Injury 37: 289294.
  • 12
    Yokoyama K, Uchino M, Nakamura K, et al. 2006. Risk factors for deep infection in secondary intramedullary nailing after external fixation for open tibial fractures. Injury 37: 554560.
  • 13
    Smith A. 2001. Laboratory animal science, 1st ed. Oslo: Norwegian School of Veterinary Science.
  • 14
    Horn J, Steen H, Reikeras O. 2008. Role of the fibula in lower leg fractures: an in vivo investigation in rats. J Orthop Res 26: 10271031.
  • 15
    Mark H, Bergholm J, Nilsson A, et al. 2003. An external fixation method and device to study fracture healing in rats. Acta Orthop Scand 74: 476482.
  • 16
    Sigurdsen U, Reikeras O, Utvag SE. 2009. External fixation compared to intramedullary nailing of tibial fractures in rat. Acta Orthop Scand 80(3): 375379.
  • 17
    Engesaeter LB, Ekeland A, Langeland N. 1978. Methods for testing the mechanical properties of the rat femur. Acta Orthop Scand 49: 512518.
  • 18
    Panjabi MM, White AA. 2001. Biomehanics in the musculoskeletal system, 1st ed. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone; p 6599.
  • 19
    Utvag SE, Grundnes O, Rindal DB, et al. 2003. Influence of extensive muscle injury on fracture healing in rat tibia. J Orthop Trauma 17: 430435.
  • 20
    Liebschner MA. 2004. Biomechanical considerations of animal models used in tissue engineering of bone. Biomaterials 25: 16971714.
  • 21
    O'Loughlin PF, Morr S, Bogunovic L, et al. 2008. Selection and development of preclinical models in fracture-healing research. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1 (90 Suppl): 7984.
  • 22
    Giotakis N, Narayan B. 2007. Stability with unilateral external fixation in the tibia. Strateg Trauma Limb Reconstr 2: 1320.
  • 23
    Pape HC, Auf'm'Kolk M, Paffrath T, et al. 1993. Primary intramedullary femur fixation in multiple trauma patients with associated lung contusion—a cause of posttraumatic ARDS? J Trauma 34: 540547.
  • 24
    Tscherne H, Oestern HJ. 1982. A new classification of soft-tissue damage in open and closed fractures (author's transl). Unfallheilkunde 85: 111115.
  • 25
    Waydhas C, Nast-Kolb D, Trupka A, et al. 1996. Posttraumatic inflammatory response, secondary operations, and late multiple organ failure. J Trauma 40: 624630.
  • 26
    Pape H, Stalp M, Griensven M, et al. 1999. Optimal timing for secondary surgery in polytrauma patients: an evaluation of 4,314 serious-injury cases. Chirurg 70: 12871293.
  • 27
    Laurencin CT, Einhorn TA, Lyons K. 2008. Fracture repair: challenges and opportunities. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1 (90 Suppl): 12.
  • 28
    Goodship AE, Cunningham JL, Kenwright J. 1998. Strain rate and timing of stimulation in mechanical modulation of fracture healing. Clin Orthop Relat Res 355 (Suppl): S105S115.
  • 29
    Jagodzinski M, Krettek C. 2007. Effect of mechanical stability on fracture healing-an update. Injury 1 (38 Suppl): S3S10.
  • 30
    Yokoyama K, Itoman M, Nakamura K, et al. 2008. New scoring system predicting the occurrence of deep infection in open upper and lower extremity fractures: efficacy in retrospective re-scoring. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 129(4): 469474.
  • 31
    Harris I, Lyons M. 2005. Reoperation rate in diaphyseal tibia fractures. ANZ J Surg 75: 10411044.
  • 32
    Wheelwright EF, Court-Brown CM. 1992. Primary external fixation and secondary intramedullary nailing in the treatment of tibial fractures. Injury 23: 373376.