• 1
    Fenwick S, Harrall R, Hackney R, et al. 2002. Endochondral ossification in Achilles and patella tendinopathy. Rhuematology (Oxford) 41(4): 474476.
  • 2
    Maffulli N, Reaper J, Ewen SE, et al. 2006. Chondral metaplasia in calcific insertional tendinopathy of the Achilles tendon. Clin J Sport Med 16(4): 329334.
  • 3
    Lui PPY, Fu SC, Chan LS, et al. 2009. Chondrocyte phenotype and ectopic ossification in collagenase-induced tendon degeneration. J Histochem Cytochem 57(2): 91100.
  • 4
    Lui PPY, Chan LS, Cheuk YC, et al. 2009. Expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 in the chondrogenic and ossifying sites of calcific tendinopathy and traumatic tendon injury rat models. J Orthop Surg Res 21(4): 27.
  • 5
    Neuwirth J, Fuhrmann RAE, Veit A, et al. 2006. Expression of bioactive bone morphogenetic proteins in the subacromial bursa of patients with chronic degeneration of the rotator cuff. Arthritis Res Ther 8(4): R92.
  • 6
    Rui YF, Lui PPY, Li G, et al. 2010. Isolation and characterization of multipotent rat tendon-derived stem cells. Tissue Eng Part A 16(5): 15491558.
  • 7
    Wang JH, Yang G, Li Z. 2005. Controlling cell responses to cyclic mechanical stretching. Ann Biomed Eng 33(3): 337342.
  • 8
    Kuo CK, Tuan RS. 2008. Mechanoactive tenogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. Tissue Eng Part A 14(10): 16151627.
  • 9
    Bosch U, Zeichen J, Skutek M, et al. 2002. Effect of cyclical stretch on matrix synthesis of human patellar tendon cells. Unfallchirurg 105(5): 437442.
  • 10
    Sumanasinghe RD, Bernacki SH, Loboa EG. 2006. Osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells in collagen matrices: effect of uniaxial cyclic tensile strain on bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2) mRNA expression. Tissue Eng 12(12): 34593465.
  • 11
    Siddhivarn C, Banes A, Champagne C, et al. 2007. Mechanical loading and ▵12 prostaglandin J2 induce bone morphogenetic protein-2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-1 and bone nodule formation in an osteoblastic cell line. J Periodont Res 42: 383392.
  • 12
    Matsubara T, Kida K, Yamaguchi A, et al. 2008. BMP2 regulates osetrix through Msx2 and Runx2 during osteoblast differentiation. J Biol Chem 283(43): 2911929125.
  • 13
    Bi Y, Ehirchiou D, Kilts TM, et al. 2007. Identification of tendon stem/progenitor cells and the role of the extracellular matrix in their niche. Nat Med 13(10): 12191227.
  • 14
    Hashimoto Y, Yoshida G, Toyoda H, et al. 2007. Generation of tendon-to-bone interface “enthesis” with use of recombinant BMP-2 in a rabbit model. J Orthop Res 25(11): 14151424.
  • 15
    Tanno M, Furukawa KI, Ueyama K, et al. 2003. Uniaxial cyclic stretch induces osteogenic differentiation and synthesis of bone morphogenetic proteins of spinal ligament cells derived from patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligaments. Bone 33: 475484.
  • 16
    Speer MY, Yang HY, Brabb T, et al. 2009. Smooth muscle cells give rise to osteochondrogenic precursors and chondrocytes in calcifying arteries. Circ Res 104(6): 733741.
  • 17
    Zhang J, Wang JH. 2010. Mechanobiological response of tendon stem cells: implications of tendon homeostasis and pathogenesis of tendinopathy. J Orthop Res 28(5): 639643.
  • 18
    Zhang J, Wang JH. 2010. Production of PGE(2) increases in tendons subjected to repetitive mechanical loading and induces differentiation of tendon stem cells into non-tenocytes. J Orthop Res 28(2): 198203.
  • 19
    Chikazu D, Li X, Kawaguchi H, et al. 2002. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 induces cyclo-oxygenase 2 in osteoblasts via a Cbfa1 binding site: role in effects of bone morphogenetic protein 2 n vitro and in vivo. J Bone Miner Res 17(8): 14301440.
  • 20
    Clark CA, Li TF, Kim KO, et al. 2009. Prostaglandin E2 inhibits BMP signaling and delays chondrocyte maturation. J Orthop Res 27(6): 785792.
  • 21
    Arikawa T, Omura K, Morita I. 2004. Regulation of bone morphogenetic protein-2 expression by endogenous prostaglandin E2 in human mesenchymal stem cells. J Cell Physiol 200(3): 400406.
  • 22
    Virdi AS, Cook LJ, Oreffo RO, et al. 1998. Modulation of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and bone morphogenetic protein-4 gene expression in osteoblastic cell lines. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 44(8): 12371246.
  • 23
    Csiszar A, Smith KE, Koller A, et al. 2005. Regulation of bone morphogenetic protein-2 expression in endothelial cells: role of nuclear factor-kappaB activation by tumor necrosis factor-alpha, H2O2, and high intra-vascular pressure. Circulation 111: 23642372.
  • 24
    Csiszar A, Labinskyy N, Smith KE, et al. 2007. Downregulation of bone morphogenetic protein 4 expression in coronary arterial endothelial cells—role of shear stress and the cAMP/protein kinase A pathway. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 27: 776782.
  • 25
    Rath B, Nam J, Knobloch TJ, et al. 2008. Compressive forces induce osteogenic gene expression in calvarial osteoblasts. J Biomech 41(5): 10951103.
  • 26
    Arnoczky SP, Lavagnino M, Egerbacher MT. 2007. The response of tendon cells to changing loads: Implications in the etiopathogenesis of tendinopathy. In: WooSLY, RenstromPAFH, ArnoczkySP, editors. Tendinopathy in athletes. USA: Blackwell Publishing; p 4659.
  • 27
    Feng JQ, Harris MA, Ghosh-Choundhury N, et al. 1994. Structure and sequence of mouse bone morphogenetic protein-2 gene (BMP-2): comparison of the structures and promoter regions of BMP-2 and BMP-4 genes. Biochim Biophys Acta 1218: 221224.
  • 28
    Feng JQ, Chen D, Cooney AJ, et al. 1995. The mouse bone morphogenetic protein-4 gene: analysis of promoter utilization in fetal rat calvarial osteoblast and regulation by COUP-TFI orphan receptor. J Biol Chem 270: 2836428373.