• 1
    Rees JD, Maffulli N, Cook J. 2009. Management of tendinopathy. Am J Sports Med 37(9): 18551867.
  • 2
    Fenwick S, Harrall R, Hackney R, et al. 2002. Endochondral ossification in Achilles and patella tendinopathy. Rhuematology (Oxford) 41(4): 474476.
  • 3
    Maffulli N, Reaper J, Ewen SE, et al. 2006. Chondral metaplasia in calcific insertional tendinopathy of the Achilles tendon. Clin J Sport Med 16(4): 329334.
  • 4
    Lui PPY, Fu SC, Chan LS, et al. 2009. Chondrocyte phenotype and ectopic ossification in collagenase-induced tendon degeneration. J Histochem Cytochem 57(2): 91100.
  • 5
    Lui PPY, Maffulli N, Rolf C, et al. 2010. What are the validated animal models for tendinopathy? Scand J Med Sci Sports DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2010.01164.x. Published online July 29.
  • 6
    Lui PPY, Chan LS, Cheuk YC, et al. 2009. Expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 in the chondrogenic and ossifying sites of calcific tendinopathy and traumatic tendon injury rat models. J Orthop Surg Res 21(4): 27.
  • 7
    Neuwirth J, Fuhrmann RAE, Veit A, et al. 2006. Expression of bioactive bone morphogenetic proteins in the subacromial bursa of patients with chronic degeneration of the rotator cuff. Arthritis Res Ther 8(4): R92.
  • 8
    Rui YF, Lui PPY, Ni M, et al. 2010. Mechanical loading increased BMP-2 expression which promoted osteogenic differentiation of tendon-derived stem cells. J Orthop Res DOI: 10.1002/jor.21218. Published online September 29.
  • 9
    Lui PP, Chan LS, Fu SC, et al. 2010. Expression of sensory neuropeptides in tendon is associated with failed healing and activity-related tendon pain in collagenase-induced tendon injury. Am J Sports Med 36(4): 757764.
  • 10
    Arnoczky SP, Lavagnino M, Egerbacher M. 2007. The response of tendon cells to changing loads: Implications in the etiopathogenesis of tendinopathy. In: WooSLY, RenstromPAFH, ArnoczkySP, editors. Tendinopathy in athletes, Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing; pp 4659.
  • 11
    Li H, Jiang LS, Dai LY. 2007. Hormones and growth factors in the pathogenesis of spinal ligament ossification. Eur Spine J 16:10751084.
  • 12
    Rui YF, Lui PPY, Chan LS, et al. Does erroneous differentiation of tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) contribute to the pathogenesis of calcifying tendinopathy? Chin Med J (Engl) (accepted).
  • 13
    Sumanasinghe RD, Bernacki SH, Loboa EG. 2006. Osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells in collagen matrices: Effect of uniaxial cyclic tensile strain on bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2) mRNA expression. Tissue Eng 12(12): 34593465.
  • 14
    Siddhivarn C, Banes A, Champagne C, et al. 2007. Mechanical loading and Δ12 prostaglandin J2 induce bone morphogenetic protein-2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor -1 and bone nodule formation in an osteoblastic cell line. J Periodont Res 42:383392.
  • 15
    Feng JQ, Harris MA, Ghosh-Choundhury N, et al. 1994. Structure and sequence of mouse bone morphogenetic protein-2 gene (BMP-2): Comparison of the structures and promoter regions of BMP-2 and BMP-4 genes. Biochim Biophys Acta 1218:221224.
  • 16
    Feng JQ, Chen D, Cooney AJ, et al. 1995. The mouse bone morphogenetic protein-4 gene: Analysis of promoter utilization in fetal rat calvarial osteoblast and regulation by COUP-TFI orphan receptor. J Biol Chem 270:2836428373.
  • 17
    Tanno M, Furukawa KI, Ueyama K, et al. 2003. Uniaxial cyclic stretch induces osteogenic differentiation and synthesis of bone morphogenetic proteins of spinal ligament cells derived from patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligaments. Bone 33:475484.
  • 18
    Speer MY, Yang HY, Brabb T, et al. 2009. Smooth muscle cells give rise to osteochondrogenic precursors and chondrocytes in calcifying arteries. Circ Res 104(6): 733741.
  • 19
    Bi Y, Ehirchiou D, Kilts TM, et al. 2007. Identification of tendon stem/progenitor cells and the role of the extracellular matrix in their niche. Nat Med 13(10): 12191227.
  • 20
    Lui PPY, Chan LS, Lee YW, et al. 2010. Sustained expression of proteoglycans and collagen type III/Type I ratio in a calcified tendinopathy model. Rheumatology 49(2): 231239.
  • 21
    Fu SC, Chan KM, Rolf CG. 2007. Increased deposition of sulphated glycosaminoglycans in human patellar tendinopathy. Clin J Sport Med 17(2): 129134.
  • 22
    Seib FP, Franke M, Jing D, et al. 2009. Endogenous bone morphogenetic proteins in human bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells. Eur J Cell Biol 88:257271.
  • 23
    Fu SC, Chan BP, Wang W, et al. 2002. Increase expression of matrix metalloproteinase 1(MMP1) in 11 patients with patellar tendinosis. Acta Orthop Scand 73(6): 658662.
  • 24
    Chen D, Zhao M, Mundy GR. 2004. Bone morphogenetic proteins. Growth Factors 22(4): 233241.
  • 25
    Hannallah D, Peng H, Young B, et al. 2004. Retroviral delivery of Noggin inhibits the formation of heterotopic ossification induced by BMP-4, demineralized bone matrix, and trauma in an animal model. J Bone Joint Surg Am 86A(1): 8091.
  • 26
    Glaser DL, Economides AN, Wang L, et al. 2003. In vivo somatic cell gene transfer of an engineered noggin mutein prevents BMP4-induced heterotopic ossification. J Bone Joint Surg 85A:23322342.