Optimizing the osteogenic potential of adult stem cells for skeletal regeneration

Authors

  • Jung Yul Lim,

    1. Department of Engineering Mechanics, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588
    2. The Graduate School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea
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  • Alayna E. Loiselle,

    1. Division of Musculoskeletal Sciences, Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Center for Biomedical Devices and Functional Tissue Engineering, College of Medicine, Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033
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  • Jeong Soon Lee,

    1. Department of Engineering Mechanics, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588
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  • Yue Zhang,

    1. Division of Musculoskeletal Sciences, Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Center for Biomedical Devices and Functional Tissue Engineering, College of Medicine, Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033
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  • Joshua D. Salvi,

    1. Weill Cornell Medical College, Cornell University, New York, New York 10021
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  • Henry J. Donahue

    Corresponding author
    1. Division of Musculoskeletal Sciences, Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Center for Biomedical Devices and Functional Tissue Engineering, College of Medicine, Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033
    • Division of Musculoskeletal Sciences, Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Center for Biomedical Devices and Functional Tissue Engineering, College of Medicine, Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033. T: 717-531-4819; F: 717-531-7583.
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  • Jung Yul Lim and Alayna E. Loiselle contributed equally to this study.

Abstract

Adult stem cells, including mesenchymal stem cells, display plasticity in that they can differentiate toward various lineages including bone cells, cartilage cells, fat cells, and other types of connective tissue cells. However, it is not clear what factors direct adult stem cell lineage commitment and terminal differentiation. Emerging evidence suggests that extracellular physical cues have the potential to control stem cell lineage specification. In this perspective article, we review recent findings on biomaterial surface and mechanical signal regulation of stem cell differentiation. Specifically, we focus on stem cell response to substrate nanoscale topography and fluid flow induced shear stress and how these physical factors may regulate stem cell osteoblastic differentiation in vitro. © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 29:1627–1633, 2011

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