• nerve regeneration;
  • segmental nerve defect;
  • nerve lengthening;
  • Macaca fascicularis;
  • distraction neurogenesis


We have developed a new treatment for peripheral nerve defects: nerve-lengthening method, and confirmed the efficacy and safety of our method using cynomolgus monkeys. A 20-mm defect in the median nerve of monkey's forearms was repaired through the simultaneous lengthening of both nerve stumps with original nerve-lengthening device. To evaluate nerve regeneration after neurorrhaphy, electrophysiological, histological, and functional recovery were examined and compared to the standard autografting. Nerve conduction velocity, axon maturation, and the result of functional test were superior in the nerve-lengthening method than in the autografting. And there were no adverse events associated with our method. We concluded that this method is practical for clinical application. © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 30:153–161, 2012