• 1
    Nevitt MC, Cummings SR. 1993. Type of fall and risk of hip and wrist fracture: the study of osteoporotic fractures. J Am Geriatr Soc 41: 12261234.
  • 2
    Hill C, Riaz M, Mozzam A, et al. 1998. A regional audit of hand and wrist injuries: a study of 4873 injuries. J Hand Surg Br-Euro 23: 196200.
  • 3
    Jaffe MS, Dijkers MP, Zamentis M. 1997. A population-based survey of in-line skaters' injuries and skating practices. Arch Phys Med Rehab 78: 13521357.
  • 4
    Ray NF, Chan JK, Thamer M, et al. 1997. Medical expenditures for the treatment of osteoporotic fractures in the United States in 1995: report from the national osteoporosis foundation. J Bone Miner Res 12: 2435.
  • 5
    Fardellone P. 2008. Predicting the fracture risk in 2008. Joint Bone Spine 75: 661664.
  • 6
    United States Consumer Product Safety Commission. 2011. National Electronic Injury Surveillance System on-line data base. Retrieved from
  • 7
    Henry MH. 2008. Distal radius fractures: current concepts. J Hand Surg 33-A: 12151227.
  • 8
    DeGoede KM, Ashton-Miller JA, Schultz AB. 2003. Fall-related upper body injuries in the older adult: a review of the biomechanical issues. J Biomech 36: 10431053.
  • 9
    Beardsley CL, Anderson DD, Marsh JL, et al. 2005. Interfragmentary surface area as an index of comminution severity in cortical bone impact. J Orthop Res 23: 686690.
  • 10
    Lubhan J, Englund R, Trinidad G, et al. 2005. Adequacy of laboratory simulation of in-line skater falls. J Hand Surg 30-A: 283288.
  • 11
    Frykman G. 1967. Fracture of the distal radius including sequale-shoulder-hand-finger syndrome: disturbance in the distal radio-ulnar joint and impairment of nerve function. Acta Orthop Scand 108: 1135.
  • 12
    Horseman A, Currey JD, Phil D. 1983. Estimation of mechanical properties of the distal radius form the bone mineral content and cortical width. Clin Orthop 176: 298304.
  • 13
    Meyers ER, Sebeny EA, Hecker AT, et al. 1991. Correlations between photon absorption properties and failure load of the distal radius in vitro. Calcif Tissue Int 52: 292297.
  • 14
    Meyers ER, Hecker AT, Rooks DS, et al. 1993. Geometric variables from DXA of the radius predict forearm fracture load in-vitro. Calcif Tissue Int 52: 199204.
  • 15
    Augat P, Reeb H, Claes LE. 1996. Prediction of fracture load at different skeletal sites by geometric properties of the cortical shell. J Bone Miner Res 11: 13561363.
  • 16
    Giacobetti FB, Sharkey PF, Bos-Giacobetti A, et al. 1997. Biomechanical analysis of the effectiveness of in-line skating wrist guards for preventing wrist fractures. Am J Sports Med 25: 223225.
  • 17
    Lewis LM, West O'C, Standeven J, et al. 1997. Do wrist guards protect against fractures? Ann Emerg Med 29: 766769.
  • 18
    Moore MS, Popovic NA, Daniel JN. 1997. The effect of a wrist brace on injury patterns in experimentally produced distal radius fractures in a cadaveric model. The Am J Sports Med 25: 394401.
  • 19
    Greenwald RM, Janes PC, Swanson SC, et al. 1998. Dynamic impact response of human cadaveric forearms using a wrist brace. Am J Sports Med 26: 825830.
  • 20
    Staebler MP, Moore DC, Akelman E, et al. 1999. The effect of wrist guards on bone strain in the distal forearm. Am J Sports Med 27: 500506.
  • 21
    McGrady LM, Hoepfner P, Young CC, et al. 2001. Biomechanical effect of in-line skating wrist guards on the prevention of wrist fracture. KSME Int J 15: 10721076.
  • 22
    Duma SM, Boggess BM, Crandall JR, et al. 2003. Injury risk function for the small female wrist in axial loading. Accid Anal Prev 35: 869875.
  • 23
    Leslie IJ, Dickson RA. 1981. The fractured carpal scaphoid: natural history and factors influencing outcome. J Bone Joint Surg 63-B: 225230.
  • 24
    Troy KL, Grabiner MD. 2007. Off-axis loads cause failure of the distal radius at lower magnitudes than axial loads: a finite element analysis. J Biomech 40: 16701675.
  • 25
    Werner FW, Short WH, Fortino MD, et al. 1997. The relative contribution of selected carpal bones to global wrist motion during simulated planar motion and out-of-plane wrist motion. J Hand Surg 22-A: 708713.
  • 26
    Quenneville CE, Fraser GS, Dunning CE. 2010. Development of an apparatus to produce fractures from short-duration high-impulse loading with an application in the lower leg. J Biomech Eng 32: 014502-1014502-4.
  • 27
    Austman RL, Beaton BJB, Quenneville CE, et al. 2007. The effect of distal ulnar implant stem material and length on bone strains. J Hand Surg [Am] 32-A: 848854.
  • 28
    Winter DA. 2005. Biomechanics and motor control of human movement, 3rd ed. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. p 158.
  • 29
    Mueller ME, Nazarian S, Koch P, et al. 1990. The AO classification of fractures of long bones. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag.
  • 30
    Benham PP, Crawford RJ, Armstrong CG. 1996. Stress and strain transformations. In: Mechanics of engineering materials, 2nd ed. Harlow England: Pearson Prentice Hall; p 292339.
  • 31
    Bozkus H, Bozdag E, Sunbuloglu E, et al. 2004. Surface strain and stress analysis of the mid-cervical vertebrae bone compartments: a biomechanical pilot study. Turk Neurosurg 14: 111.
  • 32
    Quenneville CE, McLacchlin SD, Greeley GS, et al. 2011. Injury tolerance criteria for short-duration axial impulse loading of the isolated tibia. J Trauma 70: E13E18.
  • 33
    McElhaney JH. 1965. Dynamic response of bone. J Appl Physiol 21: 12311236.
  • 34
    Hansen U, Zioupos P, Simpson R, et al. 2008. The effect of strain rate on the mechanical properties of human cortical bone. J Biomech Eng 130: 011011-1011011-8.
  • 35
    Troy KL, Grabiner MD. 2007. Asymmetrical ground impact of the hands after a trip-induced fall: experimental kinematics and kinetics. Clin Biomech 22: 10881095.
  • 36
    Johnson PG, Szabo MD. 1993. Angle measurements of the distal radius: a cadaver study. Skelet Radiol 22: 243246.
  • 37
    May MM, Lawton JN, Blazar PE. 2002. Ulnar styloid fractures associated with distal radius fractures: incidence and implications for distal radioulnar joint instability. J Hand Surg 27-A: 965971.
  • 38
    Behiri JC, Bonfield W. 1980. Crack velocity dependence of longitudinal fracture in bone. J Mater Sci 15: 18411849.
  • 39
    Reilly GC, Currey JD. 2000. The effects of damage and microcracking on the impact strength of bone. J Biomech 33: 337343.
  • 40
    Martin RB, Gibson VA, Stover SM, et al. 1997. Residual strength of equine bone in not reduced by intense fatigue loading: implications for stress fracture. J Biomech 30: 109114.
  • 41
    Gupta HS, Zioupos P. 2008. Fracture of bone tissue: the ‘hows’ and ‘whys’. Med Eng Phys 30: 12091226.
  • 42
    Lo IKY, King GJW, Milne AD, et al. 1998. A biomechanical analysis of the intrascaphoid compression using the Herbert scaphoid screw system. J Hand Surg 23-B: 209213.
  • 43
    McCalister WV, Knight J, Kaliappan R, et al. 2003. Central placement of the screw in simulated fractures of the scaphoid waist. J Bone Joint Surg 85-A: 7277.
  • 44
    Kincaid B, Schroder L, Mason J. 2007. Measurement of orthopaedic cortical bone screw insertion performance in cadaver bone and model materials. Exp Mech 47: 595607.
  • 45
    Burkhart TA, Andrews DM. 2010. The effectiveness of wrist guards fro reducing wrist and elbow acceleration responses following simulated forward falls. J Appl Biomech 26: 281289.
  • 46
    Lo J, McCabe GN, DeGoede KM, et al. 2003. On Reducing impact force in forward falls: results of a brief intervention in young males. Clin Biomech 18: 730736.
  • 47
    Robinovitch SN, Chiu J. 1998. Surface stiffness affects impact force during a fall on an outstretch hand. J Orthop Res 16: 309313.
  • 48
    Duma SM, Bogess BM, Crandall JR, et al. 2003. Injury risk function for the small female wrist in axial loading. Accid Anal Prev 35: 869875.