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Keywords:

  • bone;
  • allogeneic stem cells;
  • host immune response;
  • fracture repair;
  • osteogenesis

Abstract

The mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are reported to be immunoprivileged and osteogenic. We hypothesized that the use of allogeneic MSCs for bone repair was possible if they displayed an ability to induce similar osteogenesis in syngeneic as well as in allogeneic hosts. To test this hypothesis we used a cloned bone marrow derived cell, termed D1, isolated from Balb/c mice. The D1 cells were subcutaneously injected in syngeneic Balb/c, allogeneic immunocompetent B6, allogeneic T-cell deficient NCr nude, and allogeneic B6 Pfp−/− Rag2−/− mice that lack matured T and B cells as well as NK-cell cytolytic functions. D1 cells formed ectopic bones only in syngeneic or allogeneic immunocompromised hosts but not in allogeneic B6 hosts. The lack of T cells alone in allogeneic NCr mice was sufficient to promote osteogenesis in allogeneic environment. We observed a significantly higher number of T cells, B cells, macrophages and significantly higher expression of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in B6 allogeneic implants as compared to the syngeneic implants. These factors correlated with severe inhibition of expression of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and runx2 genes in the implants from B6 mice. Our data suggest that strategies to inhibit T cells and IFN-γ functions will be useful for bone repair mediated by allogeneic MSCs. © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 31: 227–234, 2013