We sought to understand the effects of superior humeral head translation and load of the long head of biceps on the pathomechanics of the superior glenoid labrum by predicting labral strain. Using micro-CT cadaver images, a finite element model of the glenohumeral joint was generated, consisting of humerus, glenoid bone, cartilages, labrum, and biceps tendon. A glenohumeral compression of 50 N and biceps tensions of 0, 22, 55, and 88 N were applied. The humeral head was superiorly translated from 0 to 5 mm in 1-mm increments. The highest labral strain occurred at the interface with the glenoid cartilage and bone beneath the origin of the biceps tendon. The maximum strain was lower than the reported failure strain. The humeral head motion had relatively greater effect than biceps tension on the increasing labral strain. This supports the mechanistic hypothesis that superior labral lesions result mainly from superior migration of the humeral head, but also from biceps tension. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 32:1424–1429, 2014.