• acid phosphomonoesterase;
  • soil;
  • roots;
  • mycorrhizal fungi;
  • location;
  • extraction


Acid phosphomonoesterase (APM) (E.C. in soil is either of plant-root or microbial origin. Each of these sources may be dominant in certain ecosystems. Generally, extracellular APM in soil has been reported. However, the lack of suitable methods limits investigations of APM in soil. Root-derived APM comes from intact plant roots, root exudates, root apoplastic sap, root extracts, or mycorrhizal fungi. The significance of these sources of APM is discussed in this review being the highest in intact roots or root extracts, and within wall- and membrane-bound fraction of mycorrhizal fungi. Evaluation of the location of APM has been based on extraction of fractions of APM with different types of extractants. The suitability of individual extractants and lack of these procedures as well as the need to search for other suitable solutions to increase extraction efficiency, minimalize extraction of inhibitors and solubilization of organic compounds are discussed. As APM derived from roots and soil microorganisms show different kinetic properties, and differ in their response to environmental factors, determination of the significance of root and microbial APM within ecosystems requires further research aimed at evaluating the response of P transformation to climatic and other environmental changes.