• arbuscular mycorrhizae;
  • Arum-type;
  • Paris-type;
  • dark septate endophyte fungi;
  • fruit crops;
  • Glomus;
  • microsclerotia;
  • morphology


A survey on the endorhizal status of 39 fruit crops of 25 families, indicated that 22 fruit crops had arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM)–, four had dark septate endophyte (DSE)–fungal association, and 13 had dual colonization of AM and DSE fungi. Fruit crops were capable of forming Arum-, Paris-, or intermediate-types of AM morphologies of which intermediate-type was common. To our knowledge, we report for the first time AM in 10 fruit crops and DSE-fungal association in 17 fruit crops. The extent of AM- and DSE-fungal colonization ranged from 41% to 98% and < 1% to 89.9%, respectively, in different fruit crops. Arbuscular mycorrhizal–fungal spore numbers in the rhizosphere ranged from 6 to 61 spores per 25 g of soil. Arbuscular mycorrhizal–fungal spores belonging to Acaulospora, Glomus, and Scutellospora were isolated from the rhizosphere soil.