Vectors of volunteerism: Correlates of volunteer retention, recruitment, and job satisfaction


  • Rachel Dwiggins-Beeler,

    1. Contra Costa College
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    • Rachel A. Dwiggins-Beeler, MA, is a professor in the Speech Department at Contra Costa College. She is involved in research that focuses on student learning methodologies as well as state and county public health education. She can be reached at

  • Brian Spitzberg,

    1. San Diego State University
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    • Brian H. Spitzberg, PhD, is Senate Distinguished Professor in the School of Communication at San Diego State University. He is involved in research focusing on interpersonal communication competence, jealousy, conflict, intimate partner violence, and stalking. Correspondence regarding this article should be forwarded to him at

  • Scott Roesch

    1. San Diego State University
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    • Scott C. Roesch, PhD, is an associate professor on faculty in the Department of Psychology at San Diego State University. His interests focus on the application of latent variable methodology in mental/physical health research. He can be reached at


This article is corrected by:

  1. Errata: Erratum for “Vectors of Volunteerism: Correlates of Volunteer Retention, Recruitment, and Job Satisfaction” from the Journal of Psychological Issues in Organizational Culture, 2011, Volume 2, Number 3, page 34 (Table 1) Volume 2, Issue 4, 83–84, Article first published online: 26 January 2012


Volunteers are a rapidly growing segment of the workforce population, contributing both time and resources to the success of many organizations. Utilizing quantitative data from a survey, this study first develops a theoretical model of nonprofit volunteer participation and satisfaction and tests this model through structural equation modeling. The data derive from over 250 volunteers of a nonprofit organization located in a large southwestern urban area. Specifically, this study investigates the relationship of volunteer motivation, organizational communication, and structural barriers with job satisfaction, intent to remain with the organization, and intent to engage in volunteer-initiated recruitment. A slightly modified model derived from the theorized model received support. Motivation predicted satisfaction with organizational communication, which in turn predicted perceived barriers, job satisfaction, commitment, and intentions to recruit others. Implications are examined both for the theory of organizational communication and the recruitment of volunteers for nonprofit organizations.