The author considers and contrasts a number of contemporary viewpoints about the nature and potential impact of diversity interventions primarily within higher education institutions and across organizational cultures. He focuses on issues of race and racial inequality, although the principles and theoretical perspectives discussed could be applied to other areas where inequalities exist. The author also draws upon current perspectives on race, racism, and ways of making effective and meaningful diversity interventions, including views from critical pedagogy, critical race theory, and cosmopolitan thinkers. He concludes that the modern educator within higher education is faced with the dilemma of a choice between rejecting useful theoretical insights into the extent of racial discrimination and being resigned to making largely ineffective diversity interventions. A solution to the dilemma is briefly outlined.