A model for femininity and military leadership


  • Karen M. Walker PhD

    1. Navy Personnel Research, Studies, and Technology (NPRST) Laboratory
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    • Karen M. Walker is a personnel research psychologist at the Navy Personnel Research, Studies, and Technology (NPRST) Laboratory. Her expertise is in gender and leadership research with a background in industrial/organizational psychology. Her e-mail address is ksolo23@msn.com.


Although the concept of women as leaders is not a novelty, recent trends have women breaking through traditional “glass ceilings,” thus pioneering female leadership roles in the workplace and the military. Women in leadership is a movement, a paradigm shift. The author offers a unique leadership model calculated from an instrumental multiple case study analysis of female military officers leading in male-dominated environments. The model proposes four principle dimensions: femininity, self-efficacy, emotional intelligence, and teamwork (F-SET). It has a feminist appeal, although it engages leadership theory from other innovative angles.