• apoptosis;
  • photodynamic therapy;
  • phthalocyanines;
  • Pc4;
  • Photofrin®;
  • photosensitizer;
  • clinical trials


Photodynamic therapy is a binary treatment now accepted in clinic for various malignancies in several countries around the world. Phthalocyanine molecules are second-generation photosensitizers with enhanced photophysical and photochemical properties over those of porphyrins. They have been shown to be phototoxic against a number of cell types and tumor models. A great deal of research has been devoted to the elucidation of their mechanism of action and mode of cell death. The present paper reviews phthalocyanine pre-clinical anti-cancer research with emphasis on phthalocyanine induced apoptosis using a silicon phthalocyanine, Pc4. A brief summary of the latest clinical results using phthalocyanines is presented. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.