Quantification of glycine crystallinity by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy



The object of this investigation was to use near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for quantification of glycine crystallinity. Glycine samples, with different degrees of crystallinity, were obtained by physically mixing different proportions of crystalline β-glycine with amorphous glycine. NIR spectra were obtained, directly from samples in glass vials, over the wavelength range of 1100–2500 nm. A partial least squares (PLS) model was developed to correlate the NIR spectral changes with the degree of crystallinity. Using this model, a standard error of calibration (SEC) of 2.1% was obtained with an r2 value of 0.996. Cross validation was used to test the precision of the quantitative model, resulting in a standard error of prediction (SEP) of 3.2%. These results indicate that NIR spectroscopy is well suited to the measurement of glycine crystallinity in lyophilized products. Employing the PLS model, the crystallinity of glycine in freeze-dried sucrose-glycine mixtures was evaluated. At a sucrose to glycine ratio >4, glycine crystallization during lyophilization was inhibited. Conversely, at ratios ≤0.67, glycine remained substantially crystalline. At intermediate compositions, the glycine was partially crystalline. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 93:2439–2447, 2004