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Keywords:

  • in silico modeling;
  • pharmacokinetics;
  • phospholipids;
  • tissue partition;
  • physiological model;
  • physicochemical properties;
  • beta-blockers;
  • partition coefficients;
  • QSAR;
  • PBPK modeling

Abstract

Tissue-to-plasma water partition coefficients (Kpu's) form an integral part of whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (WBPBPK) models. This research aims to improve the predictability of Kpu values for moderate-to-strong bases (pKa ≥ 7), by developing a mechanistic equation that accommodates the unique electrostatic interactions of such drugs with tissue acidic phospholipids, where the affinity of this interaction is readily estimated from drug blood cell binding data. Additional model constituents are drug partitioning into neutral lipids and neutral phospholipids, and drug dissolution in tissue water. Major assumptions of this equation are that electrostatic interactions predominate, drugs distribute passively, and non-saturating conditions prevail. Resultant Kpu predictions for 28 moderate-to-strong bases were significantly more accurate than published equations with 89%, compared to 45%, of the predictions being within a factor of three of experimental values in rat adipose, bone, gut, heart, kidney, liver, muscle, pancreas, skin, spleen and thymus. Predictions in rat brain and lung were less accurate probably due to the involvement of additional processes not incorporated within the equation. This overall improvement in prediction should facilitate the further application of WBPBPK modeling, where time, cost and labor requirements associated with experimentally determining Kpu's have, to a large extent, deterred its application. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 94:1259–1276, 2005