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Keywords:

  • QSAR;
  • in silico modeling;
  • nonlinear regression;
  • computational ADME;
  • blood–brain barrier;
  • drug transport;
  • passive diffusion;
  • permeability

Abstract

This study presents a mechanistic QSAR analysis of passive blood–brain barrier permeability of drugs and drug-like compounds in rats and mice. The experimental data represented in vivo log PS (permeability-surface area product) from in situ perfusion, brain uptake index, and intravenous administration studies. A data set of 280 log PS values was compiled. A subset of 178 compounds was assumed to be driven by passive transport that is free of plasma protein binding and carrier-mediated effects. This subset was described in terms of nonlinear lipophilicity and ionization dependences, that account for multiple kinetic and thermodynamic effects: (i) drug's kinetic diffusion, (ii) ion-specific partitioning between plasma and brain capillary endothelial cell membranes, and (iii) hydrophobic entrapment in phospholipid bilayer. The obtained QSAR model provides both good statistical significance (RMSE < 0.5) and simple physicochemical interpretations (log P and pKa), thus providing a clear route towards property-based design of new CNS drugs. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 98:122–134, 2009