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Keywords:

  • albumin;
  • distribution;
  • drug interactions;
  • protein binding;
  • protein aggregation

Abstract

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are generated not only from glucose but also from several aldehydes such as methylglyoxal, glyoxal, and glycolaldehyde. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of several aldehydes on human serum albumin (HSA) in terms of the physicochemical properties and formation of AGE structures. HSA modified with methylglyoxal, generated by the glycolysis pathway and degradation of the Schiff base, showed the highest increase in the molecular weight and net negative charge, whereas glucose modification caused a small increase in the molecular weight even incubation for after 4 weeks. Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), Nε-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL), and imidazolone increased in modified HSA in correlation with their lysine and arginine modification, whereas high amounts of GA-pyridine was detected in HSA modified with glycolaldehyde. Furthermore, the binding ability of HSA to warfarin and ketoprofen was more effectively decreased by methylglyoxal modification than the other aldehydes. These results indicated that changes in the physicochemical properties and the formation of AGE structures are highly dependent on the aldehydes. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 99: 1614–1625, 2010