• Higher order structure comparability;
  • biopharmaceuticals characterization;
  • NMR;
  • spectroscopy;
  • NMR fingerprinting;
  • proteins;
  • protein structure;
  • diffusion


In this work, we applied nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to rapidly assess higher order structure (HOS) comparability in protein samples. Using a variation of the NMR fingerprinting approach described by Panjwani et al. [2010. J Pharm Sci 99(8):3334–3342], three nonglycosylated proteins spanning a molecular weight range of 6.5–67 kDa were analyzed. A simple statistical method termed easy comparability of HOS by NMR (ECHOS-NMR) was developed. In this method, HOS similarity between two samples is measured via the correlation coefficient derived from linear regression analysis of binned NMR spectra. Applications of this method include HOS comparability assessment during new product development, manufacturing process changes, supplier changes, next-generation products, and the development of biosimilars to name just a few. We foresee ECHOS-NMR becoming a routine technique applied to comparability exercises used to complement data from other analytical techniques. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 102:1724–1733, 2013