The evolution of the concept of isotonicity in pharmacy

Authors

  • Ivan J. Szekely,

    1. Barnes-Hind Laboratories Inc., and the College of Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco
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    • Barnes-Hind Laboratories, Inc., 430 Post St., San Francisco.

  • Frank M. Goyan

    1. Barnes-Hind Laboratories Inc., and the College of Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco
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    • University of California, College of Pharmacy.


Abstract

The concept of isotonicity in pharmacy arose at the turn of the century from earlier fundamental discoveries. Various approaches to the problem of determining quantities of substances required for the preparation of isotonic solutions that were adopted by pharmacists are discussed in the light of present knowledge. These considerations, some based upon the Arrhenius theory and others representing simple conversion of physical or biological methods, led to the gradual acceptance of the practice of adjusting solutions to conform to certain accepted isotonic values. The basis for choosing certain of these values is presented.

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