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Fig. S1. Spatial distribution of the monthly total precipitation and annual mean temperature derived from the CRU TS3.1 dataset for the period 1901–2006.

Fig. S2. Carbon biomass of the Pinus sylvestris during the mid and late Holocene.

Fig. S3. Carbon biomass of the spine and spruce in the late Holocene.

Table S1. Descriptions of the macrofossil and pollen data used in this study.

Table S2. Descriptions of the mega-fossil sites used in the study.

Appendix S1. References used in supporting Tables S1 and S2.

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