Using a large number of temperature-sensitive proxy records, we investigated the relationship between the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and temperature variability in China during the last millennium. The results indicate a relatively homogeneous pattern of cold/warm anomalies in East, West and the whole of China (EC, WC and WOC). The six major AMO cold phases coincided with cold conditions over EC, WC and WOC, while warm conditions across China occurred during the two major AMO warm phases. This close similarity between the AMO and multi-decadal temperature variability in China is supported by climate model simulations and emphasizes the critical role of surface heating over the Asian continent in linking the AMO and the Indian summer monsoon. The mid-latitude westerly anomalies and the propagation of Rossby waves related to the AMO may be two channels linking sea surface temperature anomalies in the North Atlantic and temperature variability over East Asia. Additionally, the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation may play an important role in transmitting the AMO signal over the globe. We recommend further climate model studies on the mechanisms responsible for the connection between the AMO and regional to global climate changes.