• Lincolnshire;
  • Trent;
  • terrace deposits;
  • Quaternary;
  • Wolstonian


The Balderton Terrace marks a former course of the River Trent between Newark and the Lincoln Gap. The principal deposit, the Balderton Sand and Gravel, is interpreted as a braided river sediment. Ice wedge casts truncated by intraformational erosion surfaces at many levels indicate syndepositional permafrost. Remnant cover deposits overlying the Balderton Sand and Gravel include the partly aeolian Whisby Sand. Locally, both the upper part of the Balderton Sand and Gravel and the cover deposits exhibit features indicative of temperate climate pedogenesis. All these deposits are affected by subsequent cryoturbation. On the basis of these features and the geomorphological and topographical relationship to other terrace deposits of the area, the Balderton Sand and Gravel and Whisby Sand are regarded as post-Hoxnian and pre-lpswichian, i.e. Wolstonian. Electron spin resonance age determinations for fossil elephant teeth and amino acid analyses on molluscs from the Balderton Sand and Gravel suggest correlation with Oxygen Isotope Stage 6. The Balderton Sand and Gravel has yielded a cold-climate mammalian fauna dominated by woolly mammoth and woolly rhinoceros, though rarer species suggest periods of milder climate. Silts from channels near the base of the deposit have produced pollen, mollusc, ostracod and beetle assemblages also indicating a cold climate.