An in situ analysis of the richly decorated Turkish 16th century manuscript called Hürev Ü Sirin was performed by Raman microscopy and the following twelve pigments identified on the illuminations: lapis lazuli, red lead, carbon black, vermilion, indigo, orpiment, realgar, pararealgar, lead white, azurite, malachite and, indirectly, gold. Several mixtures of these pigments were also found to have been used, e.g. indigo and orpiment for green. The study reveals the wide palette used, notably the extensive use of valuable pigments such as lapis lazuli and gold. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.