• mobile Raman spectroscopy;
  • cultural heritage materials;
  • pigments and paintings;
  • minerals and stones


This paper introduces presentations given at the fourth International Conference on the Application of Raman Spectroscopy in Art and Archaeology, held in Modena, Italy, in the Ducal Palace, on 5–8 September 2007. The subjects of lectures and posters presented were concerned mainly with the new applications of Raman microscopy and other Raman techniques to more problematic samples, such as lakes, inks, and fluorescent dyes. Chronologically, the applications extended from the 10th century BC to the present day. The areas considered in the research were wide-ranging in terms of subject-matter and also geographically. New techniques have been developed for the study of binders in paintings and lakes, and with movable instrumentation on unmovable samples. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.