• hybrid microspectroscopy;
  • confocal Raman imaging;
  • two-photon excited fluorescence microscopy;
  • Rayleigh scatter imaging;
  • living human stem cells


A hybrid fluorescence–Raman confocal microscopy platform is presented, which integrates low-wavenumber-resolution Raman imaging, Rayleigh scatter imaging and two-photon fluorescence (TPE) spectral imaging, fast ‘amplitude-only’ TPE-fluorescence imaging and high-spectral-resolution Raman imaging. This multi-dimensional fluorescence–Raman microscopy platform enables rapid imaging along the fluorescence emission and/or Rayleigh scatter dimensions. It is shown that optical contrast in these images can be used to select an area of interest prior to subsequent investigation with high spatially and spectrally resolved Raman imaging. This new microscopy platform combines the strengths of Raman ‘chemical’ imaging with light scattering microscopy and fluorescence microscopy and provides new modes of correlative light microscopy. Simultaneous acquisition of TPE hyperspectral fluorescence imaging and Raman imaging illustrates spatial relationships of fluorophores, water, lipid and protein in cells. The fluorescence–Raman microscope is demonstrated in an application to living human bone marrow stromal stem cells. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.