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Keywords:

  • polyaniline;
  • oligoaniline;
  • resonance Raman

Abstract

The pH–structure correlation of the products of aniline peroxydisulfate reaction was mainly investigated by resonance Raman spectroscopy. The reactions of aniline and ammonium peroxydisulfate were carried out in aqueous solutions of initial pH ranging from 4.9 to 13.2 and monomer/oxidant molar ratio of 4/1. For an initial pH of 4.9, the spectroscopic techniques showed that the emeraldine salt form of polyaniline (PANI–ES) is the main product, corroborating that the usual head-to-tail coupling mechanism is taking place. The resonance Raman spectra at 1064 nm exciting wavelength were useful to detect the emeraldine salt as a minor product for reactions at an initial pH of 5.3–11.5. The Raman spectra of the main product of the reaction at initial pH of 13.2 excited at 1064 and 413.1 nm showed new spectral features consistent with 1,4-Michael-type adducts of aniline monomers and 1,4-benzoquinone-monoimine unit. These compounds and their products of hydrolysis/oxidation are the predominant species for the reaction media of initial pH from 5.3 to 13.2. In order to get PANI with different nanoscale morphologies, a pH value of more than 0 or 1 was used in the aniline polymerization. The spectroscopic data obtained in this work reveal that head-to-tail coupling does not occur when aniline reacts at media pH higher than about 5. It is suggested that chemical structures of the products of aniline oxidation by an unusual mechanism are the driving force for the development of assorted morphologies. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.