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A novel combinative Raman and SEM mapping method for the detection of exfoliation of graphite in electrodes at very positive potentials

Authors

  • Andreas Hintennach,

    1. Paul Scherrer Institut, Electrochemistry Laboratory, CH-5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland
    Current affiliation:
    1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Electrochemical Energy Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Building 31, Room 146, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
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  • Petr Novák

    Corresponding author
    1. Paul Scherrer Institut, Electrochemistry Laboratory, CH-5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland
    • Paul Scherrer Institut, Electrochemistry Laboratory, CH-5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland.
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Abstract

The random exfoliation at very positive potentials (>5 V vs Li/Li+) of graphite (used as a conductive component in positive electrodes of lithium-ion batteries) was investigated with in situ Raman microscopy and post mortem scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A novel semiautomated computational method for the data analysis of both characterization methods was developed to correlate Raman and SEM information with good lateral resolution, in order to locate exfoliated graphite particles. Proof is given that the exfoliating particles detected via the semiautomatic in situ Raman microscopy mappings correctly describes exfoliated areas, as confirmed via post mortem SEM pictures. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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