Pigments and fresco-related materials from the wall painting Historia de Concepción by Gregorio De La Fuente in Concepción, Chile were identified by Raman microscopy. The pigments were compared with those obtained from the artist's studio, and results allowed inference about subsequent interventions. Materials coming from processes such as salt efflorescence were also studied. The results contribute to the diagnosis of the current conservation state of the wall painting for its future restoration. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.