• pigment;
  • miniature;
  • mobile;
  • ivory;
  • fake


Six French miniature portraits on ivory and paper dating back to the 18th to 19th centuries have been studied by Raman spectroscopy. The miniatures have been investigated through their protective glass cover using different operating conditions: various laser wavelengths (1064, 785 and 532 nm), spectrometers (fixed and mobile) and objectives (10× to 200×). The results obtained for black (carbon), grey (carbon + chalk), red (lead oxide, vermillion), blue (Prussian or phthalocyanine blue), green (emerald or Paris green) and white (lead white) pigments are presented. The consistency of the period of use of the pigments with the proposed dating for each artwork is evaluated. Attention is paid to the analysis of the ivory substrates (assigned to Asian elephant ivory) and to the protective glass. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.