Thin, transparent, and self-assembled films of neat polyaniline and polyaniline/carbon nanotube nanocomposites were deposited over glass substrates by interfacial polymerization. The effect of the carbon nanotubes on the structure and conformation of the polyaniline, and the type of interaction between the polymer and the nanotubes, have been studied by resonant Raman spectroscopy and UV–Vis and Raman spectroelectrochemistry. The results indicate clearly that the carbon nanotubes induce important changes in the electronic structure of the polymer, resulting in a more polaronic organization. Additionally, an effective interaction between the polymer and the nanotube, based on a polyaniline-to-nanotube charge transfer, is proposed in this work. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.