Characterisation and diagnosis of the conservation state of cementitious materials exposed to the open air in XIX century lighthouses located on the coast of the Basque Country: ‘The case of Igueldo lighthouse, San Sebastian, North of Spain’

Authors

  • Héctor Morillas,

    Corresponding author
    • Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country, Bilbao, Basque Country, Spain
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  • Maite Maguregui,

    1. Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of the Basque Country, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Basque Country, Spain
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  • Olivia Gómez-Laserna,

    1. Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country, Bilbao, Basque Country, Spain
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  • Josu Trebolazabala,

    1. Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country, Bilbao, Basque Country, Spain
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  • Juan Manuel Madariaga

    1. Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country, Bilbao, Basque Country, Spain
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  • This article is part of the Journal of Raman Spectroscopy special issue entitled “Raman spectroscopy in art and archaeology” edited by Juan Manuel Madariaga and Danilo Bersani.

Héctor Morillas, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country, P.O. Box 644, 48080 Bilbao, Basque Country, Spain. E-mail: hector.morillas@ehu.es

Abstract

Non-invasive Raman spectroscopy for molecular analysis, assisted with other analytical techniques such as X-ray fluorescence for elemental analysis were applied to characterise possible pathologies on cement mortar and concrete (cementitious materials) from a historical 19th century lighthouse exposed to the open air, in Igueldo (San Sebastian, Basque Country, North of Spain). The spectroscopic observations were compared with quantitative concentration values of cations and anions extracted as soluble salts, treated by chemometric tools. The integrated analytical techniques were used to diagnose the influence of (1) marine aerosol, (2) seagull droppings and (3) original addition of sulphates to the cementitious materials, on the formation of decaying products such as chlorides, sulphates, nitrates, etc., that affect the integrity of the lighthouse outdoor area. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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