Micro-Raman spectroscopy of carbon-based black pigments

Authors

  • Eugenia P. Tomasini,

    1. UMYMFOR and Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Emilia B. Halac,

    1. Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    2. Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de San Martín, San Martín, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Search for more papers by this author
  • María Reinoso,

    1. Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    2. Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de San Martín, San Martín, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Emiliano J. Di Liscia,

    1. Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Marta S. Maier

    Corresponding author
    • UMYMFOR and Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Search for more papers by this author

  • This article is part of the Journal of Raman Spectroscopy special issue entitled “Raman spectroscopy in art and archaeology” edited by Juan Manuel Madariaga and Danilo Bersani.

Marta S. Maier, UMYMFOR and Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellón 2, Ciudad Universitaria, (C1428EGA), Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina. E-mail: maier@qo.fcen.uba.ar

Abstract

Carbon-based black pigments are a wide group of dark-colored materials, which are classified according to the starting material used and their method of manufacture. Raman spectroscopy is an ideal technique for the characterization of carbonaceous matter: crystalline carbon materials present well-defined peaks, which can be easily assigned; amorphous carbon materials, on the other hand, show broad bands between 1300 and 1600 cm−1. The aim of this work was the discrimination between carbon-based pigments by micro-Raman spectroscopy. Five carbon-based pigments provided by Zecchi (lampblack, ivory black, bistre, bitumen, and graphite), two humic-earth materials [Van Dyck (Kremer) and Earth of Kassel (Zecchi)], and a commercial wood charcoal were studied. Raman spectra of all the samples showed the characteristic bands at approximately 1580 and 1350 cm−1; however, a clear difference in position, width, and relative intensity could be observed for most of the samples. The resulting analysis showed that micro-Raman spectroscopy allowed the discrimination of most of the reference pigments and allowed the identification of carbon-based black pigments in two South American colonial paintings dated from the early 18th century. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Ancillary