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Supporting information may be found in the online version of this article.

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jrs_4161_sm_f1.TIFTIFF image172KFigure S1. Numerical model of the P–T evolution for zircon, rutile, and albite inclusions in a sapphire crystal taken from southeastern Australia (SEA). The model uses Eq. 21 of Zhang,[33] in which a host and an inclusion are postulated to be spherical and isotropic, and behave as a perfect elastic body. For the calculation, the bulk moduli and volume thermal expansion coefficients of the sapphire and the inclusions in Table 1 were used, and the shear modulus of sapphire was set to 166 GPa, which represents the Voigt average of the elastic stiffness constant.[42] We postulate that the P–T path for the exhumation of the sapphire grain follows the ancient geothermal gradient in SEA[48]. The initial diameters of the host sapphire and inclusions are 1 cm and 0.1 mm, respectively. The P–T conditions for the formation of the sapphire were assumed to be 0.92 GPa and 900°C corresponding to the lower crust condition.

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