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Micro-Raman and GC/MS analysis to characterize the wall painting technique of Dicho Zograph in churches from Republic of Macedonia

Authors

  • Lidija Robeva Čukovska,

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    • National Conservation Centre, Central Chemical Laboratory, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
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  • Biljana Minčeva – Šukarova,

    1. Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences & Mathematics, University ‘Ss Cyril & Methodius’, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
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  • Anna Lluveras-Tenorio,

    1. Laboratory of Chemical Science for Safeguarding the Cultural Heritage, Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
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  • Alessia Andreotti,

    1. Laboratory of Chemical Science for Safeguarding the Cultural Heritage, Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
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  • Maria Perla Colombini,

    1. Laboratory of Chemical Science for Safeguarding the Cultural Heritage, Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
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  • Irena Nastova

    1. Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences & Mathematics, University ‘Ss Cyril & Methodius’, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
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  • This article is part of the Journal of Raman Spectroscopy special issue entitled “Raman spectroscopy in art and archaeology” edited by Juan Manuel Madariaga and Danilo Bersani.

Lidija Robeva Cukovska, National Conservation Centre, Central Chemical Laboratory, Evlija Celebija b.b., 1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia.

E-mail: lidija2603@gmail.com

Abstract

Micro-Raman spectroscopy, pyrolysis/gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (Py/GC/MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (CG/MS) were applied for the characterization of pigments and binders used in the wall paintings ascribed to the works of the prominent 19th century Macedonian iconographer, Dicho Zograph. Among numerous works attributed to him, wall paintings from three churches in the Western part of the Republic of Macedonia have been selected for pigment and binder analysis.

A rich palette of pigments, both natural/mineral and synthetic ones, were identified by micro-Raman spectroscopy. Organic material analysis evidenced the use of mixtures of proteinaceous materials (mainly animal glue and egg) with linseed oil and pine resin, while saccharide materials were excluded.

A comparison between the pigments and binders identified in this study and those suggested in Dicho's Painter's Manual (from 1851) showed that some materials had not been mentioned in his written source. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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