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CW measurements of resonance Raman profiles, line-widths, and cross-sections of fluorescent dyes: application to Nile Blue A in water and ethanol

Authors

  • Antoine Reigue,

    1. The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand
    2. ICFP, Département de Physique de l'ENS, Paris, France
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  • Baptiste Auguié,

    1. The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand
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  • Pablo G. Etchegoin,

    Corresponding author
    • The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand
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  • Eric C. Le Ru

    Corresponding author
    • The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand
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Correspondence to: Pablo G. Etchegoin, Eric C. Le Ru, The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington 6140, New Zealand

E-mails: eric.leru@vuw.ac.nz; pablo.etchegoin@vuw.ac.nz

Abstract

The aim of this work is to illustrate the power of recently developed methods for measuring resonance Raman scattering (RRS) spectra of efficient fluorophores (using a standard continuous wave excitation and a charge-coupled device (CCD)-based Raman spectrometer), by applying them to a detailed study of a specific fluorophore: Nile Blue A. A combination of methods are used to measure the RRS properties of Nile Blue A in water (quantum yield (QY) of 4%) and ethanol (QY of 22%) at excitation wavelengths between 514 and 647 nm, thus covering both pre-resonance and RRS conditions. Standard Raman measurements are used in situations where the fluorescence background is small enough to clearly observe the Raman peaks, while the recently introduced polarization-difference RRS and continuously shifted Raman scattering are used closer to (or at) resonance. We show that these relatively straightforward methods allow us to determine the Raman cross-sections of the most intense Raman peaks and provide an accurate measurement of their line-width; even for broadenings as low as ∼ 4 cm − 1. Moreover, the obtained Raman excitation profiles agree well with those derived from the optical absorption by a simple optical transform model. This study demonstrates the possibility of routine RRS measurements using standard Raman spectrometers, as opposed to more complicated time-resolved techniques. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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