Characterization of microcrystals in some ancient glass beads from china by means of confocal Raman microspectroscopy
Article first published online: 25 FEB 2013
Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Journal of Raman Spectroscopy
Volume 44, Issue 4, pages 643–649, April 2013
How to Cite
Zhao, H.X., Li, Q.H., Liu, S. and Gan, F.X. (2013), Characterization of microcrystals in some ancient glass beads from china by means of confocal Raman microspectroscopy. J. Raman Spectrosc., 44: 643–649. doi: 10.1002/jrs.4239
- Issue published online: 10 APR 2013
- Article first published online: 25 FEB 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 30 NOV 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 30 NOV 2012
- Manuscript Received: 10 AUG 2012
- ancient glass beads;
- confocal Raman microspectroscopy;
- provenance study
A total of ten ancient colored glass beads were analyzed by confocal Raman microspectroscopy for the non-destructive identification of microcrystals within them. These beads were excavated from different regions of China, including Xinjiang, Henan, Hubei and Guangxi Provinces, and were dated mainly from the 10th century BC to the 9th century AD. For the first time, either tin or antimony-based opacifiers/colorants including calcium antimonate (CaSb2O6, Ca2Sb2O7), bindheimite (Pb2Sb2O7), lead tin yellow type II (PbSn1-xSixO3) and cassiterite (SnO2) were identified in nine samples. In addition, other crystalline phases such as cuprite (Cu2O), α-wollastonite (CaSiO3), diopside (CaMgSi2O6), feldspar (KAlSi3O8), calcite (CaCO3) and quartz (SiO2) were also detected. Another interesting phenomenon first observed in this study was the coexistence of Sn- and Sb-based opacifiers/colorants in one mosaic bead from Guangxi. The possibility to use Sb- and Sn-based opacifiers/colorants for dating and provenance study of ancient glass found in China is discussed briefly. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.