Exposure to asbestos or erionite is associated with malignant mesothelioma (MM) and other diseases. Micro-Raman spectroscopy and Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy were used to identify mineral fibers in histological sections of various tissues taken from mice injected with crocidolite asbestos and erionite fibers. Routine diagnostic histopathological slides of biopsies from erionite-exposed MM patients from Turkey were also analyzed. We show here that micro-Raman spectroscopy easily permits the recording of distinct Raman patterns of both crocidolite and erionite fibers, in both murine tissues and in human biopsies. The described findings provide a new powerful and non-destructive tool to determine the type of fiber exposure in patients with MM and other mineral fiber-associated diseases. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.