This article is part of the special issue of the Journal of Raman Spectroscopy entitled “Raman in Art and Archaeology 2013” edited by Polonca Ropret and Juan Manuel Madariaga.
Article first published online: 15 MAY 2014
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Journal of Raman Spectroscopy
Special Issue: Raman in Art and Archaeology 2013
Volume 45, Issue 11-12, pages 1251–1259, November-December 2014
How to Cite
2014), The source of blue colour of archaeological glass and glazes: the Raman spectroscopy/SEM-EDS answers, J. Raman Spectrosc., 45, 1251–1259, doi: 10.1002/jrs.4492, , , and (
This article was published online on 15 May 2014. The author affiliations were subsequently found to contain an error. This notice is included in the online and print versions to indicate that both have been corrected [27 May 2014].
- Issue published online: 26 DEC 2014
- Article first published online: 15 MAY 2014
- Manuscript Accepted: 11 APR 2014
- Manuscript Revised: 10 APR 2014
- Manuscript Received: 27 NOV 2013
- lapis lazuli;
The founding of lapis lazuli to give blue colour to glass and glazes is more and more coming out from the most recent studies of pottery and glassware of different epochs and provenances. The recent discovery in the south of Italy (Frederick II, Melfi castle) of enamelled glass pieces including blue enamels questioned the real nature of the blue colour raw materials because the castle is built over and not far from outcrops of two volcanic rocks – haüynophire and phonolite – that contain haüyne, mineral belonging to sodalite group as lazurite, that can be blue or become blue after heating. Raman microscopy and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were tested in order to identify the rock used as raw material and to understand if the chromophore-bearing mineral in the artefacts could be other than lazurite. To do this, the two volcanic rocks, lapis lazuli and archaeological glass with blue enamels, were studied. In particular, temperature-dependent Raman measurements and Raman mappings both on single lazurite and haüyne crystals and on the rocks and the enamels were carried out also in order to investigate the colouration mechanism of haüyne. The results obtained allowed to make hypotheses about the transformations occurring in haüyne with heating and about the procedures of distinguishing the raw materials. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.