Journal of Raman Spectroscopy

Cover image for Vol. 44 Issue 1

January 2013

Volume 44, Issue 1

Pages 1–165

  1. Research articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Research articles
    1. A potential commercial surface-enhanced Raman scattering–active substrate: stability and usability (pages 1–5)

      Nan Ji, Weidong Ruan, Zhishi Li, Chunxu Wang, Zhe Yang and Bing Zhao

      Version of Record online: 12 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/jrs.4132

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      Two-dimensional ordered nanostructure of Ag spherical caps was fabricated by replicating the patterned structure of ordered aluminum template. The aluminum template not only served as the patterned mould but also worked as a coating that protected Ag against oxidation.

    2. Templated syntheses of Pt thin films with feature sizes of 3, 6 and 9 nm and their effects on SERS (pages 6–11)

      Ki-Rim Lee, Min-Hye Kim, Jeung-Eun Hong and Young-Uk Kwon

      Version of Record online: 15 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/jrs.4134

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      Nanostructured Pt films with three different feature sizes of 3, 6 and 9 nm were fabricated by templating the pore structures of MSTFs. The Pt films produce strong Raman spectra of Rh6G with the intensity increasing as the feature size of the Pt film increase. DDA simulation results show the same trend as the observed Raman intensity with the feature sizes.

    3. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering and fluorescence emission of gold nanoparticle–multiwalled carbon nanotube hybrids (pages 12–20)

      Himani Sharma, Dinesh C. Agarwal, A. K. Shukla, D. K. Avasthi and V. D. Vankar

      Version of Record online: 30 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/jrs.4136

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      Two different excitation energies 514.5 nm (visible) and 1064 nm (IR) have been chosen to study Raman scattering and fluorescence of Au nanoparticles grafted MWCNTs hybrid materials. The Au nanoparticles piles up at defect sites on the edges of MWCNTs in the form of chains. The micro-Raman scattering studies of these hybrids were carried using visible to infrared wavelengths (514.5 and 1064 nm). Enhanced Raman scattering and fluorescence is observed at an excitation wavelength of 514.5 nm. The enhanced intensity of D mode at 1064 nm excitation wavelength is related to the double resonance phenomenon and shift in the particular mode occurs due to more electron phonon interactions near Fermi level.

    4. A new-type dynamic SERS method for ultrasensitive detection (pages 21–28)

      Kai Qian, Liangbao Yang, Zhiyuan Li and Jinhuai Liu

      Version of Record online: 27 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/jrs.4137

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      In contrast with traditional strategies, for example, optimizing SERS materials structure or fabricating perfect substrate, one extremely simple and sensitive approach called dynamic surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy has been proposed. The results highlight a rapid and effective solution in addictive narcotics residue apparatus, pesticide residue, scene of the crime of rape or other public security field.

    5. Electrochemically fabricated nanovolcano arrays for SERS applications (pages 29–34)

      Chun Kwan Tsang, Shiwei Shu, Fengxia Liang, Jie Zhang, Lingxia Zheng and Yang Yang Li

      Version of Record online: 2 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/jrs.4146

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      Nanovolcano arrays were fabricated by the electrodeposition and dealloying treatments of a monolayer of self-assembled nanospheres. The nanovolcano arrays were coated with Ag and served as high-performance SERS substrates. The enhancement effect was further studied using the finite-difference time-domain method.

    6. Nanostructured thin films as surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates (pages 35–40)

      Stefania Mura, Gianfranco Greppi, Plinio Innocenzi, Massimo Piccinini, Cristiana Figus, Maria Laura Marongiu, Cunlan Guo and Joseph Irudayaraj

      Version of Record online: 22 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/jrs.4151

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      A new solid substrate composed of a mesoporous titania thin film with included AgNPs was synthesized with a bottom–up approach, and its potential as effective SERS substrates was demonstrated for the detection of RhBITC and CytC.

    7. Trace analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using calixarene layered gold colloid film as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (pages 41–46)

      Xiaofeng Shi, Yong-Hyok Kwon, Jun Ma, Ronger Zheng, Chunyan Wang and H.-D. Kronfeldt

      Version of Record online: 24 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/jrs.4155

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      A surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) active substrate for the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was developed, which used 25, 27-dimercaptoacetic acid-26, 28-dihydroxy-4-terbutyl calix[4]arene (DMCX) to functionalize a gold colloid film. With the use of this SERS-active substrate and with the application of the shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy technique, Raman signals of pyrene and anthracene in aqueous solutions at low concentration level (500 pM) can be obtained. Moreover, the Raman bands of PAHs adsorbed on DMCX-fuctionalized gold colloid film can be one-to-one correspondence with those of solid PAHs.

    8. SERS detection of red organic dyes in Ag-agar gel (pages 47–54)

      Cristiana Lofrumento, Marilena Ricci, Elena Platania, Maurizio Becucci and Emilio Castellucci

      Version of Record online: 31 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/jrs.4162

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      A new method for the sampling of very tiny amounts of organic dyes is presented, accomplishing a good reproducibility of the SERS enhancement. The dyes’ extraction was obtained applying an agar gel loaded with silver nanoparticles directly onto mock-ups colored with alizarin, purpurin and carminic acid. SERS measurements were then performed on the surface of the Ag-agar gel probe to laser light in a micro-Raman setup.

      The feasibility of the method has been demonstrated on a real colored ancient textile.

    9. Influence of backbone length and synthetic mutations on orientation of neurotensin fragments adsorbed onto a colloidal silver surface: SERS studies (pages 55–62)

      Edyta Proniewicz, Prompong Pienpinijtham, Yukihiro Ozaki, Younkyoo Kim and Leonard M. Proniewicz

      Version of Record online: 25 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/jrs.4157

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      The SERS spectra of N-terminal fragments of human NT (NT1-6, NT1-8, and NT1-11) and also its six specifically mutated C-terminal fragments: NT8-13, [Dab9]NT8-13, [Lys8,Lys9]NT8-13, [Lys8-(®)-Lys9]NT8-13, [Lys9,Trp11,Glu12]NT8-13, and NT9-13 adsorbed onto nanometer-sized colloidal silver particles in an aqueous solution at pH level of the solution 2 are presented. A comparison was made between the structures of the native and mutated fragments to determine how changes in peptide length and mutations of the structure influenced the NT adsorption properties.

    10. High-resolution stimulated Raman spectroscopy and analysis of the ν1 band of osmium tetroxide (pages 63–69)

      M. Louviot, V. Boudon, D. Bermejo, R. Z. Martínez and L. Manceron

      Version of Record online: 11 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/jrs.4144

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      The first high-resolution stimulated Raman spectrum of the ν1 totally symmetric stretching mode of OsO4 has been recorded. It allowed a refinement of the analysis of the ν13 dyad. A positive isotopic shift for ν1 indicates a perturbation by the nearby bending polyad.

    11. Observation of low-wavenumber out-of-plane optical phonon in few-layer graphene (pages 70–74)

      Jingzhi Shang, Chunxiao Cong, Jun Zhang, Qihua Xiong, Gagik G. Gurzadyan and Ting Yu

      Version of Record online: 1 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/jrs.4141

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      Few-layer graphene, a transitional structure between graphene and graphite, has started to become a promising material for discovering the evolution of structures and properties from two to three dimensions. In this work, low-wavenumber Raman scattering and ultrafast laser pump-probe measurements have been carried out independently. As a result, the asymmetric Raman peak of ~120 cm−1 and the coherent phonon-induced oscillation in the kinetic curve of the electron–phonon relaxation process have been observed, respectively. More interestingly, the oscillation wavenumber obtained from the kinetic curve is consistent with the detected low-wavenumber phonon by Raman scattering, which is assigned to the low-wavenumber out-of-plane optical phonon mode in few-layer graphene.

    12. pH-dependent surface-enhanced Raman scattering of aromatic molecules on graphene oxide (pages 75–80)

      Zhiming Liu, Shaoxin Li, Chaofan Hu, Wen Zhang, Huiqing Zhong and Zhouyi Guo

      Version of Record online: 21 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/jrs.4142

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      Graphene oxide (GO) has become an ideal substrate for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) to study the chemical enhancement mechanism. We have demonstrated that the Raman enhancement of dyes deposited on GO is highly pH dependent. Adsorption experiments show that the pH-dependent SERS effect is closely related to the adsorption of aromatic molecules on GO.

    13. Size effects on phonon localization and Raman enhancement in silicon nanotips (pages 81–85)

      Mario Hofmann, Ya-Ping Hsieh, Chi-Te Liang and Yang-Fang Chen

      Version of Record online: 13 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/jrs.4149

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      The effect of reduced dimensionality on the Raman scattering process is studied in Silicon nanotips (SiNT). Phonon confinement near the tip apex is observed and results in a Raman enhancement of 40× for SiNTs compared with Si bulk.

    14. Thickness and stacking geometry effects on high frequency overtone and combination Raman modes of graphene (pages 86–91)

      Dongfei Li, Da Zhan, Jiaxu Yan, Chenglin Sun, Zuowei Li, Zhenhua Ni, Lei Liu and Zexiang Shen

      Version of Record online: 5 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/jrs.4156

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      In this paper, we investigate in detail for the thickness and stacking geometry effects on the features of 2D' (3240 cm–1) and 2D + G (4250 cm–1) bands. The results are significant for fundamental understanding of multiphonon involved Raman resonant scattering behaviour of graphene at high frequency region.

    15. Layer-dependent resonant Raman scattering of a few layer MoS2 (pages 92–96)

      Biswanath Chakraborty, H. S. S. Ramakrishna Matte, A. K. Sood and C. N. R. Rao

      Version of Record online: 10 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/jrs.4147

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      Resonant Raman scattering of single, bi and a few layer MoS2 reveals strong dependence of modes on the layer thickness, thus demonstrating unique Raman fingerprints of nano-MoS2.

    16. Raman analysis of glaze on various archaeological shard samples and intact Ming plates (pages 97–101)

      L. D. Kock

      Version of Record online: 1 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/jrs.4139

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      The glaze on archaeological shards and those of Ming dynasty origin have been studied using the index of polymerization (Ip), and results confirm that the two sets of shards are not likely to be of the same origin. The glaze depth profiling method is independent of the type and composition of the glaze, and that the concept of the Ip is of great utility in the study of silicate-based glazes/glasses.

    17. TLC-SERS study of Syrian rue (Peganum harmala) and its main alkaloid constituents (pages 102–107)

      Federica Pozzi, Nobuko Shibayama, Marco Leona and John R. Lombardi

      Version of Record online: 23 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/jrs.4140

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      TLC-SERS has been applied to the separation and identification of the main alkaloid components of Syrian rue (Peganum harmala) seed extract, i.e. harmalol, harmaline, harmane and harmine. The use of TLC over HPLC is a convenient way to reduce the amount of material, equipment and time needed for the analysis, and coupling of TLC with SERS provides vibrational information on each compound in the mixture. In addition, the four commercial alkaloids were characterized by SERS and normal Raman spectroscopy here for the first time.

    18. On-and off-site Raman study of rock-shelter paintings at world-heritage site of Bhimbetka (pages 108–113)

      T. R. Ravindran, A. K. Arora, M. Singh and S. B. Ota

      Version of Record online: 15 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/jrs.4148

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      Rock-shelter paintings of Bhimbetka world-heritage site near Bhopal, India are investigated on-site using a portable Raman spectrometer and in the laboratory using a micro-Raman spectrometer on micron-sized fragments extracted from the rock paintings. These paintings in the rock shelters belong to periods starting from pre-historic to the 19th century AD. Based on the Raman spectra and energy dispersive elemental analysis, mineral-based pigments such as calcite, gypsum, hematite, whewellite, and goethite could be identified.

    19. Non-invasive micro Raman, SERS and visible reflectance analyses of coloring materials in ancient Moroccan Islamic manuscripts (pages 114–120)

      A. El Bakkali, T. Lamhasni, M. Haddad, S. Ait Lyazidi, S. Sanchez-Cortes and E. del Puerto Nevado

      Version of Record online: 7 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/jrs.4154

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      A preliminary study is performed, for the first time, on a variety of ancient Islamic manuscripts from Morocco. In addition to the identification of the wide range of pigments used, it can be stated that, over centuries, the coloring materials and recipes used by ancient scribes and illuminators remained the same in the western Mediterranean region.

    20. Fundamentals of stand-off Raman scattering spectroscopy for explosive fingerprinting (pages 121–130)

      Javier Moros, Juan Antonio Lorenzo, Karel Novotný and J. Javier Laserna

      Version of Record online: 8 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/jrs.4138

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      The inherently low efficiency of the inelastic scattering requires a careful evaluation of the experimental parameters governing the analytical response of stand-off Raman spectroscopy, particularly in respect to the amenable distance to target, the data acquisition speed, and the sources of uncertainty in any given measurement.

    21. A compact optical parametric oscillator Raman microscope for wavelength-tunable multianalytic microanalysis (pages 131–135)

      Pablo Londero, John R. Lombardi and Marco Leona

      Version of Record online: 8 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/jrs.4150

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      In material and heritage studies, wavelength-tunable Raman microscopy is important for, among other things, its ability to study resonance effects and eliminate signal background. We present results for a Raman-based spectroscopy techniques as well as microreflectance and fluorescence from a high-throughput, compact, and relatively inexpensive Raman microscope based on an optical parametric oscillator tunable from 410 to 2200 nm.

    22. Structural modifications of GaN after cerium implantation (pages 136–141)

      Abdul Majid, Jianjun Zhu, Najam al Hassan and Abdul Shakoor

      Version of Record online: 12 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/jrs.4143

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      Ce : GaN is a least studied system. Ce ions were implanted into metalorganic chemical vapor deposition grown n- and p-GaN/sapphire thin films at doses 3 × 1014 and 2 × 1015 cm−2. X-ray diffraction scans, reciprocal space maps and Raman scattering measurements exhibited expansion of lattice in implanted portion of the samples. Ultraviolet Raman spectra of implanted samples show complete quenching of photoluminescence emission and appearance of multiple A1(LO) phonon scattering modes up to fifth order. This material is a potential candidate for applications in photonic and spintronic devices.

    23. Enhanced Fröhlich interaction of semiconductor cuprous oxide films determined by temperature-dependent Raman scattering and spectral transmittance (pages 142–146)

      Wenlei Yu, Meijie Han, Kai Jiang, Zhihua Duan, Yawei Li, Zhigao Hu and Junhao Chu

      Version of Record online: 15 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/jrs.4145

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      The temperature dependence of Raman spectra for the cuprous oxide film has been measured. The variations from phonon intensity ratios reveal obvious anomalies with the decreasing temperature, indicating the existence of strong electron–phonon coupling mediated by Fröhlich interaction below 200 K.

    24. Imaging of internal stress around a mineral inclusion in a sapphire crystal: application of micro-Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy (pages 147–154)

      Naoki Noguchi, Ahmadjan Abduriyim, Ichiko Shimizu, Nanako Kamegata, Shoko Odake and Hiroyuki Kagi

      Version of Record online: 2 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/jrs.4161

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      We developed a micro-Raman and photoluminescence imaging technique for visualize the internal stress fields in a sapphire crystals. The technique was applied to an Australian sapphire with a zircon inclusion. The Raman mapping data of sapphire around the zircon inclusion were converted to deviatoric components of stress tensor.

    25. Substituent effect on structure and surface activity of N-methylpyridinium salts studied by FT-IR, FT-RS, SERS and DFT calculations (pages 155–165)

      K. M. Marzec, A. Jaworska, K. Malek, A. Kaczor and M. Baranska

      Version of Record online: 2 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/jrs.4152

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      The substituent effect on structure and surface activity of mono- and disubstituted N-methylpyridinium salts was investigated by means of Raman, infrared and SERS spectroscopy. The vibrational analysis, complemented by quantum chemical calculations (B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p)) was a basis for investigation of the surface activity of the studied compounds.