Effects of cassava processing methods on antinutritional components and health status of children

Authors

  • Omorogieva Ojo,

    1. Exercise Physiology and Public Health Nutrition Research Group, School of Chemical and Life Sciences, University of Greenwich, Wellington Street, London SE18 6PF, UK
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  • Rashid Deane

    Corresponding author
    1. Exercise Physiology and Public Health Nutrition Research Group, School of Chemical and Life Sciences, University of Greenwich, Wellington Street, London SE18 6PF, UK
    • Exercise Physiology and Public Health Nutrition Research Group, School of Chemical and Life Sciences, University of Greenwich, Wellington Street, London SE18 6PF, UK
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  • This paper was presented at the International Conference on the Nutritional Enhancement of Plant Foods in European Trade, held at the John Innes Centre, Norwich, UK in September 2000. The majority of the conference proceedings were published in a special issue of Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, J Sci Food Agric81(9) (July 2000). The position statements from the European Union Concerted Action ‘The Nutritional Enhancement of Plant Foods in European Trade (NeoDiet)’ FAIR CT-97-3052 were published in a special issue of Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, J Sci Food Agric80(7) (15 May 2000)

Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate cassava processing methods in Nigeria, its antinutritional components and the possible impact on the health status of children. The traditional method of cassava processing involved peeling of cassava tubers with a knife, manual grating, dewatering with logs of wood and/or stones, sieving with a cane-woven sieve and frying in a local metal fryer on a wood fire. In contrast, the modern method involved the use of knives for peeling, a mechanical grater, a hydraulic press for dewatering, iron sieves for sieving and an improved metal fryer for frying on a coal fire. The products of both methods included gari (accounting for 70% of Nigeria's total cassava consumption) and lafun. The intake of gari and other foods in 129 3–5-year-old children in Benin City, Nigeria was also assessed based on a food frequency questionnaire. The children were classified into normal and protein-deficient groups using lower/middle/upper-arm circumference and clinical features of malnutrition. Based on the number of households in villages around Benin City who were involved in cassava processing, 90% used the traditional processing method compared with 10% using the modern method, although the latter controlled the commercial production and sale of gari. There were significantly (P < 0.05) higher intakes of protein and energy in normal compared with protein-deficient children, but the latter group obtained higher percentages of protein and energy from gari. In addition, the correlation between the amount of gari consumed and clinical scores of malnutrition was low (R2 < 0.2). This may be due to the children consuming gari from both methods and also from different sources. The average gari intake for these children was 320 g day−1 and HCN levels may be as high as 10.24 mg day−1. Some children who are exposed to these levels with poor nutritional status and lack of access to food varieties may develop sublethal effects in the short term. The higher protein intake by the normal children may also reduce the toxicity of HCN. We conclude that methods of processing cassava have profound effects on HCN retention and chemical composition of cassava products. In addition, the modern processing method is more efficient than the traditional method, with significantly reduced processing losses, labour input and levels of HCN. The HCN content in combination with the quantity and quality of protein in the diet has significant impact on the health status of children. Therefore, in susceptible children with poor nutritional status who consume inadequately processed cassava products with limited food choice, these may predispose them to the effects of HCN and thiocyanate.

© 2002 Society of Chemical Industry

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