Impact of γ-irradiation and thermal processing on the antigenicity of almond, cashew nut and walnut proteins



Whole unprocessed almonds, cashew nuts and walnuts were each subjected to γ-irradiation (1, 5, 10 and 25 kGy) followed by heat processing including autoclaving (121 °C, 15 psi for 15 and 30 min), dry roasting (138 and 160 °C for 30 min each, 168 and 177 °C for 12 min each), blanching (100 °C for 5 and 10 min), oil roasting (191 °C, 1 min) and microwave heating (500 W for 1 and 3 min). Rabbit polyclonal antibodies were raised against each major protein isolated from defatted, but not subjected to γ-irradiation and/or any thermal processing, almond, cashew nut and walnut flours. Immunoreactivity of almond, cashew nut and walnut proteins soluble in borate saline buffer, normalised to 1 mg protein ml−1 for all samples, was determined by inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting. ELISAs and Western blotting experiments indicated that almond, cashew nut and walnut proteins exposed to γ-irradiation alone or followed by various thermal treatments remained antigenically stable. Copyright © 2004 Society of Chemical Industry