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Effects of endogenous flour lipids on the quality of short-dough biscuits



Fractionation and reconstitution techniques were used to study the contribution of endogenous flour lipids to the quality of short-dough (shortcake type) biscuits. Biscuit flour was defatted with chloroform and baked with bakery fat, but without endogenous lipid. Short-dough biscuits baked from defatted flour had smaller diameters, and were flatter, denser and harder than control biscuits. Defatted flour shortcake doughs exhibited different rheological behaviour from the control samples, showing higher storage and loss moduli (G′ and G″ values), ie higher viscoelasticity. Functionality was restored when total non-starch flour lipids were added back to defatted flour. The polar lipid fraction had a positive effect in restoring flour quality whereas the non-polar lipid fraction had no effect. Both fractions were needed for complete restoration of both biscuit quality and dough rheological characteristics. A study of the microstructure of defatted biscuits revealed that their gluten protein was more hydrated and developed than the gluten of the control biscuits. This conclusion was supported by the higher water absorption of the defatted gluten. Copyright © 2004 Society of Chemical Industry