• amaranth;
  • starch;
  • protein;
  • air classification;
  • cooking;
  • popping;
  • germination


The seeds of two Amaranth species were studied. The starch contents were 543 and 623 g kg−1 while crude protein contents were 154 and 169 g kg−1 for Amaranthus caudatus and Amaranthus cruentus seeds, respectively. The effect of several treatments, including cooking, popping and germination and flour air classification on the protein and starch properties were studied. Air classification decreased the starch content and increased the protein content, while heating increased the protein but did not affect the starch content. Germination decreased both starch and protein contents. Amylose content was increased by air classification and heating, but was not affected by germination. It was found that all treatments increased the starch swelling power and reduced the falling number. The resistant starch content was increased in the high protein flour (HPF) fraction and germinated flour compared with the raw flour, while its content decreased in the heat treated seed flours. These processes also affected the starch gelatinization temperature and peak viscosity. The thermal properties of the starch flour were not affected by air classification while gelatinization energy was decreased significantly (by 52.0 and 90.0% and by 70.0 and 95.0%) in cooked and popped A caudatus and A cruentus seed flours, respectively. The gelatinization energy was highest in germinated seeds dried at 90 °C with values of 2.67 and 3.87 J g−1. Air classification reduced the level of all protein fractions. Thermal treatment decreased the water-soluble fraction (albumins + globulins) and alcohol-soluble fraction (prolamins) in both species. The levels of all fractions except the water-soluble fraction (albumins + globulins) were reduced significantly in both species by germination, which mainly increased the amount of aspartic acid, serine and alanine, while the amounts of threonine, arginine and tyrosine decreased in both species. The polypeptide bands of the HPF in both species were unchanged compared with the raw seed flours, but more intensive coloured bands were observed. Thermal treatments eliminated major and minor bands above 35.0 KDa in both species. Copyright © 2004 Society of Chemical Industry